Ostermann M, Joannidis M.; Crit Care. 2016 Sep 27;20(1):299.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
2016 Sep - Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant activity: challenges in measurement and reversal
Brown KS, Zahir H, Grosso MA, Lanz HJ, Mercuri MF, Levy JH.; Crit Care. 2016 Sep 23;20(1):273.
BACKGROUND: Four nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are approved for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. These include the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. Bleeding is a complication for all anticoagulants and concerns regarding bleeding risk and the suitability of effective reversal strategies may be a barrier to their prescription. Despite the reduced risk of bleeding compared with vitamin K antagonists, questions persist regarding the management of bleeding related to NOAC use.
2016 Sep - Dexmedetomidine sedation reduces atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery compared to propofol: a randomized controlled trial
Liu X, Zhang K, Wang W, Xie G, Fang X.; Crit Care. 2016 Sep 21;20(1):298.
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation occurs frequently in patients following cardiac surgery and can be a cause of increased morbidity and mortality. The use of dexmedetomidine to prevent atrial fibrillation is unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine sedation on the incidence of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery.
2016 Sep - The critical care management of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage: a contemporary review
de Oliveira Manoel AL, Goffi A, Zampieri FG, Turkel-Parrella D, Duggal A, Marotta TR, Macdonald RL, Abrahamson S.; Crit Care. 2016 Sep 18;20:272.
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), defined as nontraumatic bleeding into the brain parenchyma, is the second most common subtype of stroke, with 5.3 million cases and over 3 million deaths reported worldwide in 2010. Case fatality is extremely high (reaching approximately 60 % at 1 year post event). Only 20 % of patients who survive are independent within 6 months. Factors such as chronic hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and anticoagulation are commonly associated with ICH.
2016 Sep - Management of neutropenic patients in the intensive care unit (NEWBORNS EXCLUDED) recommendations from an expert panel from the French Intensive Care Society (SRLF) with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies (GFRUP), the Fre
David Schnell, Elie Azoulay, Dominique Benoit, Benjamin Clouzeau, Pierre Demaret, et al.; Annals of Intensive Care 2016 6:90
Neutropenia is defined by either an absolute or functional defect (acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is associated with high risk of specific complications that may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Specificities in the management of critically ill neutropenic patients prompted the establishment of guidelines dedicated to intensivists. These recommendations were drawn up by a panel of experts brought together by the French Intensive Care Society in collaboration with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies, the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, the French Society of Hematology, the French Society for Hospital Hygiene, and the French Infectious Diseases Society. Literature review and formulation of recommendations were performed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Each recommendation was then evaluated and rated by each expert using a methodology derived from the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Six fields are covered by the provided recommendations: (1) ICU admission and prognosis, (2) protective isolation and prophylaxis, (3) management of acute respiratory failure, (4) organ failure and organ support, (5) antibiotic management and source control, and (6) hematological management. Most of the provided recommendations are obtained from low levels of evidence, however, suggesting a need for additional studies. Seven recommendations were, however, associated with high level of evidences and are related to protective isolation, diagnostic workup of acute respiratory failure, medical management, and timing surgery in patients with typhlitis.
van Ewijk CE, Jacobs GE, Girbes AR.;; Ann Intensive Care. 2016 Dec;6(1):85.
Delirium is a frequently occurring syndrome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) or medium care unit (MCU), yet the pathophysiology remains poorly understood. An excess of central serotonin can lead to an altered mental status, associated with autonomic hyperactivity, and neuromuscular excitation. Drugs with serotonergic properties are frequently and for prolonged periods administered to ICU/MCU patients. Therefore, central serotonergic toxicity may constitute a predisposing, contributing or precipitating factor in the emergence of delirium. The purpose of the present study is to determine the number of patients admitted to the ICU or MCU who are diagnosed with delirium and who show characteristics of serotonin toxicity in association with the administration of serotonergic drugs.
Date: 5-6 Nov 2016; Venue: Grand Ballroom, Level III, JW Marriott, Admiralty, Hong Kong
2016 Sep 15 - Structure and Function of the Kidney in Septic Shock. A Prospective Controlled Experimental Study
Matthew J. Maiden, Sophia Otto, John K. Brealey, Mark E. Finnis, Marianne J. Chapman, Tim R. Kuchel, Coralie H. Nash, Jason Edwards, and Rinaldo Bellomo Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Sep 15, 2016, vol. 194, no. 6: 692-700
Rationale: It is unclear how septic shock causes acute kidney injury (AKI) and whether this is associated with histological change.
2016 Sep 15 - Continuous versus Intermittent β-Lactam Infusion in Severe Sepsis. A Meta-analysis of Individual Patient Data from Randomized Trials
Jason A. Roberts, Mohd-Hafiz Abdul-Aziz, Joshua S. Davis, Joel M. Dulhunty, Menino O. Cotta, John Myburgh, Rinaldo Bellomo, and Jeffrey Lipman Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Sep 15, 2016, vol. 194, no. 6: 681-691
Rationale: Optimization of β-lactam antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is an intervention that may improve outcomes in severe sepsis.
Walley KR.; Crit Care. 2016 Sep 10;20:270.
Many aspects of left ventricular function are explained by considering ventricular pressure–volume characteristics. Contractility is best measured by the slope, Emax, of the end-systolic pressure–volume relationship. Ventricular systole is usefully characterized by a time-varying elastance (ΔP/ΔV). An extended area, the pressure–volume area, subtended by the ventricular pressure–volume loop (useful mechanical work) and the ESPVR (energy expended without mechanical work), is linearly related to myocardial oxygen consumption per beat. For energetically efficient systolic ejection ventricular elastance should be, and is, matched to aortic elastance.
Pinsky MR.; Crit Care. 2016 Sep 10;20:266.
The primary role of the right ventricle (RV) is to deliver all the blood it receives per beat into the pulmonary circulation without causing right atrial pressure to rise. To the extent that it also does not impede left ventricular (LV) filling, cardiac output responsiveness to increased metabolic demand is optimized. Since cardiac output is a function of metabolic demand of the body, during stress and exercise states the flow to the RV can vary widely. Also, instantaneous venous return varies widely for a constant cardiac output as ventilatory efforts alter the dynamic pressure gradient for venous return. Normally, blood flow varies with minimal changes in pulmonary arterial pressure. Similarly, RV filling normally occurs with minimal increases in right atrial pressure. When pulmonary vascular reserve is compromised RV ejection may also be compromised, increasing right atrial pressure and limiting maximal cardiac output.
Date: 28/6/016; Time: 19:00-22:00; Venue: Eaton Hong Kong
2016 Sep - Management of Adults With Hospital-acquired and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: 2016 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society
Kalil AC, Metersky ML, Klompas M, Muscedere J, Sweeney DA, Palmer LB, Napolitano LM, O'Grady NP, Bartlett JG, Carratalà J, El Solh AA, Ewig S, Fey PD, File TM Jr, Restrepo MI, Roberts JA, Waterer GW, Cruse P, Knight SL, Brozek JL.; Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 1;63(5):e61-e111.
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for patients at risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), including specialists in infectious diseases, pulmonary diseases, critical care, and surgeons, anesthesiologists, hospitalists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for hospitalized patients with nosocomial pneumonia. The panel's recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP and VAP are based upon evidence derived from topic-specific systematic literature reviews.
2016 Aug - Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Patterson TF, Thompson GR 3rd, Denning DW, Fishman JA, Hadley S, Herbrecht R, Kontoyiannis DP, Marr KA, Morrison VA, Nguyen MH, Segal BH, Steinbach WJ, Stevens DA, Walsh TJ, Wingard JR, Young JA, Bennett JE.; Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 15;63(4):e1-e60.
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.
Date: 5-6 Dec 2016; Venue: Lecture Theatre, K Block, UCH
Magder S.; Crit Care. 2016 Sep 10;20:271.
Volume infusions are one of the commonest clinical interventions in critically ill patients yet the relationship of volume to cardiac output is not well understood. Blood volume has a stressed and unstressed component but only the stressed component determines flow. It is usually about 30 % of total volume. Stressed volume is relatively constant under steady state conditions. It creates an elastic recoil pressure that is an important factor in the generation of blood flow. The heart creates circulatory flow by lowering the right atrial pressure and allowing the recoil pressure in veins and venules to drain blood back to the heart...
Thomas S. Valley, MD; Michael W. Sjoding, MD; Zachary D. Goldberger, MD; Colin R. Cooke, MD CHEST Sep 2016; 150(3): 524-532
Background: Quality of care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF) varies across hospitals, but the factors driving variation are incompletely understood. We evaluated the relationship between a hospital’s ICU or coronary care unit (CCU) admission rate and quality of care provided to patients with AMI or HF.
Shuoyan Ning, MD; Rebecca Barty, MSc; Yang Liu, MMath; Nancy M. Heddle, MSc; Bram Rochwerg, MD; Donald M. Arnold, MD CHEST Sep 2016; 150(3): 516-523
Background: Platelet transfusions are commonly used in critically ill patients, but transfusion thresholds, count increments, and predictors of ineffectual transfusions remain unclear.
2016 Sep - Comparison of alcoholic chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine cutaneous antiseptics for the prevention of central venous catheter-related infection: a cohort and quasi-experimental multicenter study
Pages J, Hazera P, Mégarbane B, du Cheyron D, Thuong M, Dutheil JJ, Valette X, Fournel F, Mermel LA, Mira JP, Daubin C, Parienti JJ; 3SITES Study Group.; Intensive Care Med. 2016 Sep;42(9):1418-26
PURPOSE: Compare the effectiveness of different cutaneous antiseptics in reducing risk of catheter-related infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
Date: 22/10/2016; Venue: NCSTC, PYNEH