2017 Apr - Are there any reasons to change our behavior in necrotizing fasciitis with the advent of new antibiotics?

Menichetti F, Giuliano S, Fortunato S. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2017 Apr;30(2):172-179

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of necrotizing fasciitis requires a multifaceted approach, consisting of surgical source control with immediate surgical debridement along with life support, clinical monitoring, and antimicrobial therapy. Many drugs are now available for the treatment of this life-threatening infectious disease, and the purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an updated overview of the newest therapeutic options.

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2017 Apr - What is new in the management of skin and soft tissue infections in 2016?

Poulakou G, Giannitsioti E, Tsiodras S.; Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2017 Apr;30(2):158-171.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the most frequent infectious cause of referrals to emergency departments and hospital admissions in developed world, contributing to significant morbidity and healthcare expenditures. We sought to review recent literature covering epidemiology and management of SSTIs.

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2017 Feb - Infectious Diseases Society of America's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Healthcare-Associated Ventriculitis and Meningitis

Tunkel AR, Hasbun R, Bhimraj A, Byers K, Kaplan SL, Michael Scheld W, van de Beek D, Bleck TP, Garton HJ, Zunt JR.; Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 14.

The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Standards and Practice Guidelines Committee collaborated with partner organizations to convene a panel of 10 experts on healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis. The panel represented pediatric and adult specialists in the field of infectious diseases and represented other organizations whose members care for patients with healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis (American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neurological Surgeons, and Neurocritical Care Society). The panel reviewed articles based on literature reviews, review articles and book chapters, evaluated the evidence and drafted recommendations.

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2016 Aug - Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America

Patterson TF, Thompson GR 3rd, Denning DW, Fishman JA, Hadley S, Herbrecht R, Kontoyiannis DP, Marr KA, Morrison VA, Nguyen MH, Segal BH, Steinbach WJ, Stevens DA, Walsh TJ, Wingard JR, Young JA, Bennett JE.; Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 15;63(4):e1-e60.

It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.

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2016 Sep - Management of Adults With Hospital-acquired and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: 2016 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society

Kalil AC, Metersky ML, Klompas M, Muscedere J, Sweeney DA, Palmer LB, Napolitano LM, O'Grady NP, Bartlett JG, Carratalà J, El Solh AA, Ewig S, Fey PD, File TM Jr, Restrepo MI, Roberts JA, Waterer GW, Cruse P, Knight SL, Brozek JL.; Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 1;63(5):e61-e111.

It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for patients at risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), including specialists in infectious diseases, pulmonary diseases, critical care, and surgeons, anesthesiologists, hospitalists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for hospitalized patients with nosocomial pneumonia. The panel's recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP and VAP are based upon evidence derived from topic-specific systematic literature reviews.

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2016 Jul - Ebola Virus Shedding and Transmission: Review of Current Evidence

Vetter P, Fischer WA 2nd, Schibler M, Jacobs M, Bausch DG, Kaiser L.; J Infect Dis. 2016 Jul 20. pii: jiw254. [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: The magnitude of the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented, with >28 500 reported cases and >11 000 deaths. Understanding the key elements of Ebola virus transmission is necessary to implement adequate infection prevention and control measures to protect healthcare workers and halt transmission in the community.

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2016 Apr - Pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications of human rhinovirus infection in critically ill patients

To KK, Lau SK, Chan KH, Mok KY, Luk HK, Yip CC, Ma YK, Sinn LH, Lam SH, Ngai CW, Hung IF, Chan KH, Yuen KY.; J Clin Virol. 2016 Apr;77:85-91.

BACKGROUND: Human rhinovirus (HRV) is frequently detected in patients with respiratory tract infection. However, the full clinical spectrum of HRV infection in critically ill patients is not well characterized.

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2015 Dec - Active surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in intensive care units: Is it cost-effective in a nonendemic region?

Ho KW, Ng WT, Ip M, You JH.; Am J Infect Control. 2015 Dec 14. pii: S0196-6553(15)01112-8.

OBJECTIVE: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) cause significant morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. We examined potential cost-effectiveness of active CRE surveillance at ICUs in a nonendemic region from the perspective of a Hong Kong health care provider.

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2015 Dec - Hospital outbreak of pulmonary and cutaneous zygomycosis due to contaminated linen items from substandard laundry

Cheng VC, Chen JH, Wong SC, Leung SS, So SY, Lung DC, Lee WM, Trendell-Smith NJ, Chan WM, Ng D, To L, Lie AK, Yuen KY.; Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 13. pii: civ1006. [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: Healthcare laundry-related infection is rare and pulmonary zygomycosis due to contaminated hospital linens has never been reported.

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2015 Dec - Colistin-associated Acute Kidney Injury in Severely Ill Patients: A Step Toward a Better Renal Care? A Prospective Cohort Study

Dalfino L, Puntillo F, Ondok MJ, Mosca A, Monno R, Coppolecchia S, Spada ML, Bruno F, Brienza N.; Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15;61(12):1771-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ717. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock may need relatively high colistin daily doses for efficacy against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant gram-negative rods. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) may represent a major dose-limiting adverse effect of colistin. We sought to determine AKI occurrence and to identify factors influencing AKI risk in severely ill patients receiving colistin according to a recently proposed dosing strategy.

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2015 Oct - Incidence and species distribution of candidaemia in Asia: a laboratory-based surveillance study

Tan BH, Chakrabarti A, Li RY, Patel AK, Watcharananan SP, Liu Z, Chindamporn A, Tan AL, Sun PL, Wu UI, Chen YC; Asia Fungal Working Group (AFWG); Asia Fungal Working Group AFWG.; Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 Oct;21(10):946-53.

The epidemiology of candidaemia varies between hospitals and geographic regions. Although there are many studies from Asia, a large-scale cross-sectional study across Asia has not been performed. We conducted a 12-month, laboratory-based surveillance of candidaemia at 25 hospitals from China, Hong Kong, India, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand.

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2015 Oct - High Viral Load and Respiratory Failure in Adults Hospitalized for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

Lee N, Chan MC, Lui GC, Li R, Wong RY, Yung IM, Cheung CS, Chan EC, Hui DS, Chan PK.; J Infect Dis. 2015 Oct 15;212(8):1237-40.

A prospective study among adults hospitalized for polymerase chain reaction-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus infections (n = 123) showed frequent occurrence of lower respiratory-tract complications causing respiratory insufficiency (52.8%), requirement for assisted ventilation (16.3%), and intensive care unit admission/death (12.2%).

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2015 Jan - Infection Control Preparedness for Human Infection With Influenza A H7N9 in Hong Kong

Cheng VC, Tai JW, Lee WM, Chan WM, Wong SC, Chen JH, Poon RW, To KK, Chan JF, Ho PL, Chan KH, Yuen KY.; Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015 Jan;36(1):87-92.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of infection control preparedness for human infection with influenza A H7N9 in Hong Kong.

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2014 Nov - Human Ebola virus infection in West Africa: a review of available therapeutic agents that target different steps of the life cycle of Ebola virus

Lai KY, Ng WY, Cheng FF.; Infect Dis Poverty. 2014 Nov 28;3:43.

The recent outbreak of the human Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) epidemic is spiraling out of control in West Africa. Human EBOV hemorrhagic fever has a case fatality rate of up to 90%. The EBOV is classified as a biosafety level 4 pathogen and is considered a category A agent of bioterrorism by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with no approved therapies and vaccines available for its treatment apart from supportive care...

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2014 Sep - Pneumonia Prevention to Decrease Mortality in Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Roquilly A, Marret E, Abraham E, Asehnoune K.; Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 24. pii: ciu740.

BACKGROUND: To determine the strategies of prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia that reduce mortality in intensive care unit (ICU).

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2014 Aug - Treatment outcomes of patients with multidrug- and extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis according to drug susceptibility testing to first- and second-line drugs: an individual patient data meta-analysis

Bastos ML, Hussain H, Weyer K, Garcia-Garcia L, Leimane V, Leung CC, Narita M, Penã JM, Ponce-de-Leon A, Seung KJ, Shean K, Sifuentes-Osornio J, Van der Walt M, Van der Werf TS, Yew WW, Menzies D; on behalf of The Collaborative Group for Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data in MDR-TB; on behalf of The Collaborative Group for Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data in MDR-TB.; Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 5. pii: ciu619. [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: Individualized treatment for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB depends upon reliable and valid drug susceptibility tests (DST) for pyrazinamide, ethambutol and second-line TB drugs. However the reliability of these tests is uncertain, due to unresolved methodological issues. We estimated the association of DST results for pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and second line drugs with treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB and XDR-TB.

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2014 Mar - Initial use of echinocandins does not negatively influence outcome in Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infection: a propensity score analysis

Fernández-Ruiz M, Aguado JM, Almirante B, Lora-Pablos D, Padilla B, Puig-Asensio M, Montejo M, García-Rodríguez J, Pemán J, de Pipaón MR, Cuenca-Estrella M; on behalf of the CANDIPOP Project; GEIH-GEMICOMED (SEIMC) and REIPI.; Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Background. Concerns have arisen regarding the optimal antifungal regimen for Candida parapsilosis bloodstream infection (BSI) in view of its reduced susceptibility to echinocandins.

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2013 Aug - Human H7N9 avian influenza virus infection: a review and pandemic risk assessment

KY Lai, GWY Ng, KF Wong, IFN Hung, JKF Hong, FF Cheng, JKC Chan; Emerging Microbes & Infections (2013) 2, e48

China is undergoing a recent outbreak of a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (nH7N9) infection that has thus far involved 132 human patients, including 37 deaths. The nH7N9 virus is a reassortant virus originating from the H7N3, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. nH7N9 isolated from humans contains features related to adaptation to humans, including a Q226L mutation in the hemagglutinin cleavage site and E627K and D701N mutations in the PB2 protein...

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2013 Sep - Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: A survey of practice in the intensive care units (ICU) in Hong Kong

Yeung AWT, Yan WW, Leung AKH, Chow FL, Polly Tsai, Chan HS, Luk MC; Critical Care and Shock on August 28, 2013

Background:  Previous  studies  showed  that  therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation
arrest significantly improved neurological outcome and survival. This retrospective case series aims to examine
the practice of therapeutic hypothermia in resuscitated post cardiac arrest patients in Hong Kong.

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2013 Apr - Development of acute kidney injury during continuous infusion of vancomycin in septic patient

Cianferoni S, Devigili A, Ocampos-Martinez E, Penaccini L, Scolletta S, Abdelhadii A, De Backer D, Beumier M, Jacobs F, Vincent JL, Taccone FS.; Infection. 2013 Apr 10. [Epub ahead of print]

PURPOSE: Few data are available on the occurrence of renal failure during continuous infusion of vancomycin in critically ill patients.

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