Roquilly A, Marret E, Abraham E, Asehnoune K.; Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 24. pii: ciu740.

BACKGROUND: To determine the strategies of prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia that reduce mortality in intensive care unit (ICU).

METHODS: We followed PRISMA (Preferred Reported Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (through 10 June 2014) as well as reference lists of articles. We included all randomized controlled trials conducted in critically ill adult patients hospitalized in ICUs and evaluating digestive prophylactic methods (selective digestive decontamination [SDD], acidification of gastric content, early enteral feeding, prevention of microinhalation); circuit prophylactic methods (closed suctioning systems, early tracheotomy, aerosolized antibiotics, humidification, lung secretion drainage, silver-coated endotracheal tubes) or oropharyngeal prophylactic methods (selective oropharyngeal decontamination, patient position, sinusitis prophylaxis, subglottic secretion drainage, tracheal cuff monitoring). One reviewer extracted data that were checked by 3 others. The primary outcome was the mortality rate in the ICU.

RESULTS: We identified 157 randomized trials to pool in a meta-analysis. The primary outcome was available in 145 studies (n = 37 156). The risk ratio (RR) for death was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], .92-.99; P = .02) in the intervention groups. In subgroup analysis, only SDD significantly decreased mortality compared with control (n = 10 227; RR, 0.84 [95% CI, .76-.92; P < .001]). The RR for in-ICU death was 0.78 (95% CI, .69-.89; P < .001; I2 = 33%) in trials investigating SDD with systemic antimicrobial therapy and 1.00 (.84-1.21; P = .96; I2 = 0%) without systemic antimicrobial therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: Selective digestive decontamination with systemic antimicrobial therapy reduced mortality and should be considered in critically ill patients at high risk for death.

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