Dalfino L, Puntillo F, Ondok MJ, Mosca A, Monno R, Coppolecchia S, Spada ML, Bruno F, Brienza N.; Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15;61(12):1771-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ717. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock may need relatively high colistin daily doses for efficacy against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant gram-negative rods. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) may represent a major dose-limiting adverse effect of colistin. We sought to determine AKI occurrence and to identify factors influencing AKI risk in severely ill patients receiving colistin according to a recently proposed dosing strategy.

METHODS: A prospective, observational, cohort study involving patients with severe sepsis or septic shock who received colistin was performed. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Colistin administration was driven by a modified pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK/PD)-based dosing approach.

RESULTS: Of 70 patients who received colistin at a median daily dose of 9 million IU (MIU; interquartile range, 5.87-11.1 MIU), 31 (44%) developed AKI. In univariate analysis, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), score and baseline renal impairment were significantly associated with AKI. Moreover, patients with AKI were less frequently treated with adjuvant ascorbic acid (P = .003). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of AKI were baseline renal impairment (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-9.2; P < .001) and age (1.03; 1.0-1.05; P = .028), whereas a strong independent renal-protective role emerged for ascorbic acid (0.27; .12-.57; P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: In severely ill patients receiving colistin according to a PK/PD-driven dosing approach, baseline renal impairment and older age strongly predict AKI occurrence, but concomitant administration of ascorbic acid markedly reduces AKI risk, allowing safer use of colistin.

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