Guan Y, Farooqui A, Zhu H, Dong W, Wang J, Kelvin DJ.; J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013;7(4):302-307.
The novel re-assortment A influenza H7N9 (nrH7N9) emerged in humans in the Shanghai and surrounding provinces of China in late February and early March. Three infected index patients developed severe viral pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and resulted in fatal outcome. As of 15 April 2013 there were reported 60 confirmed nrH7N9 infections with 13 fatalities. Human-to-human transmission has not been observed, but zoonotic infections of nrH7N9 from birds to humans appear to be associated with live poultry markets. Elderly patients greater than 60 years of age accounted for 61% of the cases, indicating that the elderly may be at high risk for severe disease.
2013 Feb - Diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: controversies and working toward a gold standard
Grgurich PE, Hudcova J, Lei Y, Sarwar A, Craven DE.; Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013 Feb 14. [Epub ahead of print]
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to discuss the clinical, microbiologic, and radiological criteria used in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), distinguish between ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and VAP, and reconcile the proposed Centers for Disease Control surveillance criteria with clinical practice.
2013 Jan - Continuous infusion of Beta-lactam antibiotics in severe sepsis: a multicenter double-blind, randomized controlled trial
Dulhunty JM, Roberts JA, Davis JS, Webb SA, Bellomo R, Gomersall C, Shirwadkar C, Eastwood GM, Myburgh J, Paterson DL, Lipman J.; Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Jan;56(2):236-44.
Background. Beta-lactam antibiotics are a commonly used treatment for severe sepsis, with intermittent bolus dosing standard therapy, despite a strong theoretical rationale for continuous administration. The aim of this trial was to determine the clinical and pharmacokinetic differences between continuous and intermittent dosing in patients with severe sepsis.
2012 Nov - Empiric therapy directed against MRSA in patients admitted to the intensive care unit does not improve outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia
Griffin AT, Peyrani P, Wiemken TL, Ramirez JA, Arnold FW.; Infection. 2012 Nov 7. [Epub ahead of print]
PURPOSE: The Infectious Diseases Society of America has recommended empiric therapy active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for all community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). However, there is sparse data to support this recommendation. The objective of our study was to ascertain if such a practice improves outcomes.
Toussaint S, Gerlach H.; Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2012 Aug 12. [Epub ahead of print]
For more than 30 years, intravenously administered immunoglobulins (ivIG) have been used to treat primary and secondary syndromes of immune deficiency. Increasing insight into pathomechanisms of severe sepsis and septic shock have led to the implementation of ivIG therapy in the strategies for adjunctive therapy in sepsis in both adults and children...
Chen YH, Hsueh PR.; Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun 28. [Epub ahead of print]
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on recent changes in epidemiological aspects of bacteria-induced intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), including the dominant pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, and emerging resistance phenotypes.
2012 Apr - Impact of cefepime therapy on mortality among patients with blood stream infections caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli
Chopra T, Marchaim D, Veltman J, Johnson P, Zhao JJ, Tansek R, Hatahet D, Chaudhry K, Pogue JM, Rahbar H, Chen TY, Truong T, Rodriguez V, Ellsworth J, Bernabela L, Bhargava A, Yousuf A, Alangaden G, Kaye KS.; Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]
Background: Extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens are associated with extensive morbidity, mortality, and rising healthcare costs. Scant data exist on the impact of antimicrobial therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with ESBL bloodstream infections (BSI) and no large studies have examined the impact of cefepime therapy.
Lichtenstern C, Brenner T, Bardenheuer HJ, Weigand MA.; Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]
Purpose of review: Sepsis is relevant due to its high morbidity and mortality. For both sepsis diagnosis and outcome prediction many biomarkers have been described in the literature. Most of these markers are objects of scientific interest rather than being introduced into daily clinical practice. However, due to their unspecific character and their insufficient predictive value for the individual person, research focus is still on new aspects in sepsis-related biomarkers.
2011 Sep - The Relationship Between Vancomycin Trough Concentrations and Nephrotoxicty: A Prospective, Multi-center Trial
Bosso JA, Nappi J, Rudisill C, Wellein M, Bookstaver PB, Swindler J, Mauldin PD.; Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Sep 26. [Epub ahead of print]
Several single-center studies have suggested that higher doses of vancomycin, aimed at producing trough concentrations of >15 mg/liter, are associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. We prospectively assessed the relative incidence of nephrotoxicity in relation to trough concentration in patients with documented methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections at seven hospitals throughout South Carolina.
2011 Oct - Continuous versus intermittent infusion of vancomycin for the treatment of Gram-positive infections: systematic review and meta-analysis
Cataldo MA, Tacconelli E, Grilli E, Pea F, Petrosillo N.; J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Oct 25. [Epub ahead of print]
Objectives: To summarize available evidence on the effect of continuous infusion (CoI) of vancomycin compared with intermittent infusion (InI) in adult patients with Gram-positive infections.
2011 Aug - Early Use of Glucocorticoids Was a Risk Factor for Critical Disease and Death From pH1N1 Infection
Han K, Ma H, An X, Su Y, Chen J, Lian Z, Zhao J, Zhu BP, Fontaine RE, Feng Z, Zeng G.;Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Aug;53(4):326-33.
Background: Glucocorticoids increase the risk of developing critical disease from viral infections. However, primary care practitioners in China use them as antipyretics, potentially exposing hundreds of millions to this risk.
2011 Aug - Early and Adequate Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock [Review]
Dickinson JD, Kollef MH.;Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2011 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Severe sepsis and septic shock are conditions that pose difficult challenges to physicians and the health care system. In the past 10 years, a number of retrospective and prospective observational studies have shed light on the importance of a rapid and systematic approach to treatment of these conditions. A key component is early and appropriate use of antibiotics. Delay of even 6 h can dramatically increase hospital mortality. In addition, multivariate analyses have demonstrated that inappropriate initial antibiotics lead to worse outcomes.
Johnson JG, Talbot TR.; Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011 Aug;24(4):363-9.
Purpose of review: Vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) against influenza is an important component of infection control in healthcare settings but HCW vaccination rates remain low. Here we review current and emerging strategies for influenza vaccination of HCWs.
2011 Mar - Early versus late oseltamivir treatment in severely ill patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1): speed is life
Kumar A.; J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Mar 15. [Epub ahead of print]
The need for early antimicrobial therapy is well established for life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections including meningitis and sepsis/septic shock. However, a link between the outcome of serious viral infections and delays in antiviral therapy is not as well recognized.
Viasus D, Gudiol C, Fernández-Sabé N, Cabello I, Garcia-Vidal C, Cisnal M, Duarte R, Antonio M, Carratalà J.; Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011 Jan;30(1):77-82.
Although it has been suggested that statins have a beneficial effect on the outcome of bloodstream infection (BSI) in immunosuppressed patients, prospective studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. We performed an observational analysis of consecutive cancer patients and transplant recipients hospitalized at two tertiary hospitals in Spain (2006-2009).
2009 Dec - Characterization of a New Metallo-β-Lactamase Gene, blaNDM-1, and a Novel Erythromycin Esterase Gene Carried on a Unique Genetic Structure in Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 14 from India
A Swedish patient of Indian origin traveled to New Delhi, India, and acquired a urinary tract infection caused by a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain that typed to the sequence type 14 complex.
2010 Mar 22 - Clinical Practice Guidelines for Clostridium difficile Infection in Adults: 2010 Update by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA).
Since publication of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America position paper on Clostridium difficile infection in 1995, significant changes have occurred in the epidemiology and treatment of this infection. C. difficile remains the most important cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea and is increasingly important as a community pathogen.
To the Editor: We report results of an active surveillance system established by the Tel Aviv District Health Office in Israel. This surveillance system monitors the daily status of patients with laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in each of the district's intensive care units (ICUs), including pediatric ICUs.