2010 Mar - Short course antibiotic therapy for Gram-negative hospital-acquired pneumonia in the critically ill

Pugh RJ, Cooke RP, Dempsey G.; J Hosp Infect. 2010 Mar 2.
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the critically ill, yet the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy is unknown. Too short a course may lead to treatment failure, whereas too long a course may lead to increased antibiotic resistance, antibiotic-related morbidity and increased costs.

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2010 Mar - Neurologic manifestations of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection.

Kitcharoen S, Pattapongsin M, Sawanyawisuth K, Angela V, Tiamkao S. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Mar;16(3)
This article report an adult patient with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection who had neurologic complications.

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2010 Mar - Cytokine Activation in Severe Cases of Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza Virus Infection

Kelvin K. W. To,1 Ivan F. N. Hung,1 Iris W. S. Li,1 Kar-Lung Lee,2 Chi-Kwan Koo,3 Wing-Wa Yan,4 Raymond Liu,5 Ka-Ying Ho,6 Kwok-Hong Chu,6 Chi-Leung Watt,7 Wei-Kwang Luk,8 Kang-Yiu Lai,9 Fu-Loi Chow,10 Thomas Mok,11 Tom Buckley,12 Jasper F. W. Chan,1 Samson S. Y. Wong,1 Bojian Zheng,1 Honglin Chen,1 Candy C. Y. Lau,1 Herman Tse,1 Vincent C. C. Cheng,1 Kwok-Hung Chan,1 Kwok-Yung Yuen,1 and the Pandemic H1N1 Study Group. CID 2010:50 (15 March)
Background. Infections caused by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus range from mild upper respiratory tract syndromes to fatal diseases. However, studies comparing virological and immunological profile of different clinical severity are lacking.

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2009 - Research articles: High frequency of cross-reacting antibodies against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus among the elderly in Finland

N Ikonen ()1, M Strengell1, L Kinnunen2, P Österlund1, J Pirhonen1, M Broman1, I Davidkin1, T Ziegler1, I Julkunen1. Eurosurveillance, Volume 15, Issue 5, 04 February 2010. Date of submission: 11 December 2009
Since May 2009, the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus has been spreading throughout the world. Epidemiological data indicate that the elderly are underrepresented among the ill individuals.

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2009 Sep - Adult community-acquired bacterial meningitis requiring ICU admission: epidemiological data, prognosis factors and adherence to IDSA guidelines

Georges H, Chiche A, Alfandari S, Devos P, Boussekey N, Leroy O.; Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 1. [Epub ahead of print]
Numerous guidelines are available to guide empirical antimicrobial therapy (EAT) in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) patients. We analysed prognosis factors and compliance to the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines in ABM patients requiring stay in an intensive care unit (ICU).

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2009 Sep - Bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia in COPD patients: better outcomes than expected

Calbo E, Valdés E, Ochoa de Echagüen A, Fleites A, Molinos L, Xercavins M, Freixas N, Rodríguez-Carballeira M, Garau J.; Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009 Aug;28(8):971-6. Epub 2009 Apr 10.
The purpose of the study was to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and non-COPD patients. A case-control study was conducted.

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2009 Aug - Time for first antibiotic dose is not predictive for the early clinical failure of moderate–severe community-acquired pneumonia

Bruns AH, Oosterheert JJ, Hustinx WN, Gaillard CA, Hak E, Hoepelman AI.; Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009 Aug;28(8):913-9. Epub 2009 Mar 12.

The time to first antibiotic dose (TFAD) has been mentioned as an important performance indicator in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the advice to minimise TFAD to 4 hours (4 h) is only based on database studies. We prospectively studied the effect of minimising the TFAD on the early clinical outcome of moderate-severe CAP.

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2009 Aug - Salvage treatment for persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: efficacy of linezolid with or without carbapenem

Jang HC, Kim SH, Kim KH, Kim CJ, Lee S, Song KH, Jeon JH, Park WB, Kim HB, Park SW, Kim NJ, Kim EC, Oh MD, Choe KW.; Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Aug 1;49(3):395-401.
BACKGROUND: Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with high mortality rates, but no treatment strategy has yet been established. We performed this study to evaluate the efficacy of linezolid with or without carbapenem in salvage treatment for persistent MRSA bacteremia.

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2009 Epidemiology of fatal cases associated with pandemic H1N1 influenza

Vaillant L, La Ruche G, Tarantola A, Barboza P. ; Euro Surveill. 2009 Aug 20;14
Summary: The article describes the characteristics of 574 reported deaths associated with pandemic H1N1 influenza up to 16 July 2009. Pregnancy and metabolic condition (including diabetes and obesity) are two important risk factors for death.

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2009 Approach to the immunocompromised host with infection in the intensive care unit [Review]

Linden PK.; Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2009 Sep;23(3):535-56.

Despite significant advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infection in the immunocompromised host, it remains a major cause of morbidity, increased length of stay, total costs, and of course mortality. Intensive care mortality rates are significantly higher among immunocompromised hosts in part due to the higher incidence of infection severity.

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2009 Intra-abdominal sepsis: newer interventional and antimicrobial therapies [Review]

Solomkin JS, Mazuski J.; Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2009 Sep;23(3):593-608.
Complicated intra-abdominal infections are the second most common cause of septic death in the intensive care unit. Although there have been improvements in the outcome of sepsis regardless of etiology, this is even more striking for intra-abdominal infections.

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2009 Early- and late-onset pneumonia: is this still a useful classification?

Gastmeier P, Sohr D, Geffers C, Rüden H, Vonberg RP, Welte T.;Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Jul;53(7):2714-8. Epub 2009 Apr 13.
The choice of empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive-care unit (ICU) used to rely on the interval after the start of mechanical ventilation. Nowadays, however, the question of whether in fact there is a difference in the distribution of causative pathogens is under debate.

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2009 CDC evaluated rapid influenza diagnostic tests for influenza A(H1N1) virus detection

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009 Aug 07;58(30):826-829
CDC has evaluated 65 clinical respiratory specimens collected during April--May 2009 that had previously tested positive either for novel influenza A (H1N1) or for seasonal influenza A (H1N1) or A (H3N2) viruses by real-time reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay.

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2009 Antimicrobial use: risk driver of multidrug resistant microorganisms in healthcare settings [Review]

Tacconelli E. ; Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009 Aug;22(4):352-8.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores recent evidence on the association between antibiotics usage and resistance.

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2009 Prevention and treatment of invasive fungal diseases in neutropenic patients [Review]

Almyroudis NG, Segal BH. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009 Aug;22(4):385-93.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite advances in the diagnosis and management, invasive fungal diseases contribute substantially to the morbidity and mortality of patients with prolonged neutropenia.

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2009 Infectious complications of tumor necrosis factor blockade [Review]

Wallis RS. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009 Aug;22(4):403-9.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our understanding of the infection risks posed by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists has continued to evolve in the 10 years since these drugs were first introduced. This review summarizes recent data regarding infection risk, examines potential structure-function relationships that may account for the differences, and discusses their implications with regard to tuberculosis prevention and management.

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2009 Mucormycosis

MD Consult; 2009 Mar.

eKG Full Text for HA staff (eKG a/c login required outside HA Intranet)

An updated review on mucormycosis is done by MD Consult.