Koyner JL, Parikh CR.; Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Jun;8(6):1034-42.

AKI is a common and serious complication that is associated with several adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients. The past several years have seen a large number of multicenter investigations of biomarkers of AKI in the setting of cardiac surgery and critical illness. This review summarizes these biomarker results to identify applications for clinical use...

The Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints in AKI (TRIBE-AKI) study showed that blood and urine biomarkers measured preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at the time of the clinical increase in serum creatinine in the setting of cardiac surgery all had the ability to improve patient risk stratification for a variety of important clinical end points. Analyses of biomarkers concentrations from the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network, EARLY ARF, and other studies of critically ill subjects have similarly shown that biomarkers measured early in the clinical course can forecast the development of AKI and need for renal replacement therapy as well as inpatient mortality. Although biomarkers have informed the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of AKI and are inching closer to clinical application, large multicenter interventional clinical trials to prevent AKI using biomarkers should continue to be an active area of clinical investigation.

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