Martin Dres, Bruno-Pierre Dubé, Julien Mayaux, Julie Delemazure, Danielle Reuter, Laurent Brochard, Thomas Similowski, Alexandre Demoule  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jan 1, 2017, vol. 195, no. 1: 57-66

Rationale: Intensive care unit (ICU)- and mechanical ventilation (MV)-acquired limb muscle and diaphragm dysfunction may both be associated with longer length of stay and worse outcome. Whether they are two aspects of the same entity or have a different prevalence and prognostic impact remains unclear.

Objectives: To quantify the prevalence and coexistence of these two forms of ICU-acquired weakness and their impact on outcome.

Methods: In patients undergoing a first spontaneous breathing trial after at least 24 hours of MV, diaphragm dysfunction was evaluated using twitch tracheal pressure in response to bilateral anterior magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation (a pressure <11 cm H2O defined dysfunction) and ultrasonography (thickening fraction [TFdi] and excursion). Limb muscle weakness was defined as a Medical Research Council (MRC) score less than 48.

Measurements and Main Results: Seventy-six patients were assessed at their first spontaneous breathing trial: 63% had diaphragm dysfunction, 34% had limb muscle weakness, and 21% had both. There was a significant but weak correlation between MRC score and twitch pressure (ρ = 0.26; P = 0.03) and TFdi (ρ = 0.28; P = 0.01), respectively. Low twitch pressure (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.45–0.79; P < 0.001) and TFdi (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.92; P < 0.001) were independently associated with weaning failure, but the MRC score was not. Diaphragm dysfunction was associated with higher ICU and hospital mortality, and limb muscle weakness was associated with longer duration of MV and hospital stay.

Conclusions: Diaphragm dysfunction is twice as frequent as limb muscle weakness and has a direct negative impact on weaning outcome. The two types of muscle weakness have only limited overlap.

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