2013 Aug 15 - A Randomized Controlled Trial of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Depletion in Experimental Human Lung Inflammation
Laura C. Barr, Mairi Brittan, Andrew Conway Morris, Daniel F. McAuley, Chiara McCormack, Alison M. Fletcher, Hamish Richardson, Martin Connell, Dilip Patel, William A. H. Wallace, Adriano G. Rossi, Donald J. Davidson, Lynn Manson, Marc Turner, Nikhil Hirani, Timothy S. Walsh, Niall H. Anderson, Kevin Dhaliwal, and A. John Simpson Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Aug 15, 2013, vol. 188, no. 4: 449-455
Rationale: Depletion of monocytes reduces LPS-induced lung inflammation in mice, suggesting monocytes as potential therapeutic targets in acute lung injury.
2013 Aug 15 - Effects of Prone Positioning on Lung Protection in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Rodrigo A. Cornejo, Juan C. Díaz, Eduardo A. Tobar, Alejandro R. Bruhn, Cristobal A. Ramos, Roberto A. González, Claudia A. Repetto, Carlos M. Romero, Luis R. Gálvez, Osvaldo Llanos, Daniel H. Arellano, Wilson R. Neira, Gonzalo A. Díaz, Aníbal J. Zamorano, and Gonzalo L. Pereira Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Aug 15, 2013, vol. 188, no. 4: 440-448
Rationale: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and prone positioning may induce lung recruitment and affect alveolar dynamics in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Whether there is interdependence between the effects of PEEP and prone positioning on these variables is unknown.
Dean R. Hess, B. Taylor Thompson, and Arthur S. Slutsky Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Aug 1, 2013, vol. 188, no. 3: 285-292
In this Update, we highlight studies published in 2012 in the Journal and selected manuscripts from other journals that advanced our understanding of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and mechanical ventilation.
2013 Aug 1 - Vasopressin Compared with Norepinephrine Augments the Decline of Plasma Cytokine Levels in Septic Shock
James A. Russell, Chris Fjell, Joseph L. Hsu, Terry Lee, John Boyd, Simone Thair, Joel Singer, Andrew J. Patterson, and Keith R. Walley Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Aug 1, 2013, vol. 188, no. 3: 356-364.
Abstract: Rationale: Changes in plasma cytokine levels may predict mortality, and therapies (vasopressin versus norepinephrine) could change plasma cytokine levels in early septic shock.
Andrés Esteban, Fernando Frutos-Vivar, Alfonso Muriel, Niall D. Ferguson, Oscar Peñuelas, Victor Abraira, Konstantinos Raymondos, Fernando Rios, Nicolas Nin, Carlos Apezteguía, Damian A. Violi, Arnaud W. Thille, Laurent Brochard, Marco González, Asisclo J. Villagomez, Javier Hurtado, Andrew R. Davies, Bin Du, Salvatore M. Maggiore, Paolo Pelosi, Luis Soto, Vinko Tomicic, Gabriel D’Empaire, Dimitrios Matamis, Fekri Abroug, Rui P. Moreno, Marco Antonio Soares, Yaseen Arabi, Freddy Sandi, Manuel Jibaja, Pravin Amin, Younsuck Koh, Michael A. Kuiper, Hans-Henrik Bülow, Amine Ali Zeggwagh, and Antonio Anzueto Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. July 15, 2013, vol. 188, no. 2: 220-230
Rationale: Baseline characteristics and management have changed over time in patients requiring mechanical ventilation; however, the impact of these changes on patient outcomes is unclear.
2013 Jul 15 - Diaphragm Dysfunction on Admission to the Intensive Care Unit. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prognostic Impact—A Prospective Study
Alexandre Demoule, Boris Jung, Hélène Prodanovic, Nicolas Molinari, Gerald Chanques, Catherine Coirault, Stefan Matecki, Alexandre Duguet, Thomas Similowski, and Samir Jaber Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. July 15, 2013, vol. 188, no. 2: 213-219
Rationale: Diaphragmatic insults occurring during intensive care unit (ICU) stays have become the focus of intense research. However, diaphragmatic abnormalities at the initial phase of critical illness remain poorly documented in humans.
2013 Jul 15 - Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-2 Protects against Polymicrobial Sepsis by Enhancing Bacterial Clearance
QiXing Chen, Kai Zhang, Yue Jin, Tao Zhu, BaoLi Cheng, Qiang Shu, and XiangMing Fang Am. J Resp. Crit. Care Med. July 15, 2013, vol. 188, no. 2: 201-212
Rationale: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2) is a cell surface receptor primarily expressed on macrophages and monocyte-derived cells. TREM-2 not only functions as a regulator of inflammatory response, but also serves as a phagocytic receptor for bacteria. However, the role of TREM-2 in sepsis remains unknown.
2013 Jul 1 - An Official American Thoracic Society/International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation/Society of Critical Care Medicine/Association of Organ and Procurement Organizations/United Network of Organ Sharing Statement: Ethical and Policy
Cynthia J. Gries, Douglas B. White, Robert D. Truog, James DuBois, Carmen C. Cosio, Sonny Dhanani, Kevin M. Chan, Paul Corris, John Dark, Gerald Fulda, Alexandra K. Glazier, Robert Higgins, Robert Love, David P. Mason, Thomas A. Nakagawa, Ron Shapiro, Sam Shemie, Mary Fran Tracy, John M. Travaline, Maryam Valapour, Lori West, David Zaas, and Scott D. Halpern; on behalf of the American Thoracic Society Health Policy Committee Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jul 1, 2013, vol. 188, no. 1, 103-109
Rationale: Donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) has the potential to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. Because consent and management of potential donors must occur before death, DCDD raises unique ethical and policy issues.
Russell R. Miller III, Li Dong, Nancy C. Nelson, Samuel M. Brown, Kathryn G. Kuttler, Daniel R. Probst, Todd L. Allen, and Terry P. Clemmer, for the Intermountain Healthcare Intensive Medicine Clinical Program Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jul 1, 2013, vol. 188, no. 1: 77-82
Rationale: Severe sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, morbidity, and mortality. The effect of compliance with sepsis management guidelines on outcomes is unclear.
2013 Jul 1 - Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ventilator-associated Pneumonia. Predictive Factors of Treatment Failure
Benjamin Planquette, Jean-Francois Timsit, Benoit Y. Misset, Carole Schwebel, Elie Azoulay, Christophe Adrie, Aurélien Vesin, Samir Jamali, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Bernard Allaouchiche, Bertrand Souweine, Michael Darmon, Anne-Sylvie Dumenil, Dany Goldgran-Toledano, Bruno H. Mourvillier, and Jean-Pierre Bédos, on behalf of the OUTCOMEREA Study Group Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jul 1, 2013, vol. 188, no. 1: 69-76
Rationale: The predictive factors of treatment failure for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) remain uncertain.
Dirk Foell, Helmut Wittkowski, Christoph Kessel, Aloys Lüken, Toni Weinhage, Georg Varga, Thomas Vogl, Timo Wirth, Dorothee Viemann, Per Björk, Marieke A. D. van Zoelen, Faekah Gohar, Geetha Srikrishna, Matthias Kraft, and Johannes Roth Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jun 15, 2013, vol. 187, no. 12: 1324-1334
Rationale: S100A12 is overexpressed during inflammation and is a marker of inflammatory disease. Furthermore, it has been ascribed to the group of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules that promote inflammation. However, the exact role of human S100A12 during early steps of immune activation and sepsis is only partially described thus far.
James A. Russell and Keith R. Walley Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jun 15, 2013, vol. 187, no. 12: 1303-1307
Pivotal sepsis clinical trials and preclinical research in 2012 are reviewed. For interventions ranging from synthetic complex starch solutions to recombinant human activated protein C, large multicenter randomized controlled trials generally failed to show benefit and some even demonstrated harm in the intervention group.
2013 Jun 15 - Immunotherapy for the Adjunctive Treatment of Sepsis: From Immunosuppression to Immunostimulation. Time for a Paradigm Change?
Jenneke Leentjens, Matthijs Kox, Johannes G. van der Hoeven, Mihai G. Netea, and Peter Pickkers Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jun 15, 2013, vol 187, no. 12: 1287-1293
Sepsis is the leading cause of death in the intensive care unit and ranks in the top 10 causes of death in general worldwide. Proinflammatory mediators are related to symptoms observed early in patients with sepsis, such as fever and hemodynamic instability.
2013 Jun 1 - Research Recruitment Practices and Critically Ill Patients: A Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study (The Consent Study)
Karen E. A. Burns, Celia Zubrinich, Wylie Tan, Stavroula Raptis, Wei Xiong, Orla Smith, Ellen McDonald, John C. Marshall, Raphael Saginur, Ron Heslegrave, Gordon Rubenfeld, and Deborah J. Cook Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jun 1, 2013, vol. 187, no. 11, 1212-1218
Rationale: Limited cross-sectional data exist to characterize the challenges of enrolling critically ill patients into research studies.
2013 Jun 1 - Wean Earlier and Automatically with New Technology (the WEAN Study): A Multicenter, Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Karen E. A. Burns, Maureen O. Meade, Martin R. Lessard, Lori Hand, Qi Zhou, Sean P. Keenan, and Francois Lellouche Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jun 1, 2013, vol. 187, no. 11, 1203-1211
Rationale: Automated weaning has not been compared with a paper-based weaning protocol in North America.
2013 May 15 - Recombinant Human Activated Protein C for Adults with Septic Shock: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Djillali Annane, Jean-François Timsit, Bruno Megarbane, Claude Martin, Benoit Misset, Bruno Mourvillier, Shidasp Siami, Jean-Luc Chagnon, Jean-Michel Constantin, Franck Petitpas, Bertrand Souweine, Roland Amathieu, Xavier Forceville, Claire Charpentier, Antoine Tesnière, Jean Chastre, Julien Bohe, Gwenhael Colin, Alain Cariou, Alain Renault, Christian Brun-Buisson, and Eric Bellissant Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. May 15, 2013 vol 187 no 10 1091-1097
Rationale: A decade after drotrecogin alfa (activated) (DAA) was released on the market worldwide, its benefit-to-risk ratio remains a matter of debate.
2013 May 1 - Metabolomics as a Novel Approach for Early Diagnosis of Pediatric Septic Shock and Its Mortality
Beata Mickiewicz, Hans J. Vogel, Hector R. Wong, and Brent W. Winston Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. May 1, 2013 vol 187 no 9 967-976
Rationale: Septic shock is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Early recognition of septic shock and appropriate treatment increase survival rate; thus, developing new diagnostic tools may improve patients’ outcomes.
2013 May 1 - IL1RN Coding Variant Is Associated with Lower Risk of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Increased Plasma IL-1 Receptor Antagonist
Nuala J. Meyer, Rui Feng, Mingyao Li, Yang Zhao, Chau-Chyun Sheu, Paula Tejera, Robert Gallop, Scarlett Bellamy, Melanie Rushefski, Paul N. Lanken, Richard Aplenc, Grant E. O’Keefe, Mark M. Wurfel, David C. Christiani, and Jason D. Christie Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. May 1, 2013 vol. 187 no. 9 950-959
Rationale: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) behaves as a complex genetic trait, yet knowledge of genetic susceptibility factors remains incomplete.
Objectives: To identify genetic risk variants for ARDS using large scale genotyping.
Alem Mehari, Shoaib Alam, Xin Tian, Michael J. Cuttica, Christopher F. Barnett, George Miles, Dihua Xu, Catherine Seamon, Patricia Adams-Graves, Oswaldo L. Castro, Caterina P. Minniti, Vandana Sachdev, James G. Taylor VI, Gregory J. Kato, and Roberto F. Machado Am. J Resp. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2013 vol. 187 no. 8 840-847
Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with early mortality, but no prior studies have evaluated quantitative relationships of mortality to physiological measures of pre- and postcapillary PH.
2013 Apr 15 - Early Identification of Patients at Risk for Difficult Intubation in the Intensive Care Unit: Development and Validation of the MACOCHA Score in a Multicenter Cohort Study
Audrey De Jong, Nicolas Molinari, Nicolas Terzi, Nicolas Mongardon, Jean-Michel Arnal, Christophe Guitton, Bernard Allaouchiche, Catherine Paugam-Burtz, Jean-Michel Constantin, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Marc Leone, Laurent Papazian, Karim Asehnoune, Nicolas Maziers, Elie Azoulay, Gael Pradel, Boris Jung, and Samir Jaber Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2013 vol. 187 no. 8 832-839
Abstract: Difficult intubation in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a challenging issue.
Objectives: To develop and validate a simplified score for identifying patients with difficult intubation in the ICU and to report related complications.