2013 Apr 1 - Comparison of the Berlin Definition for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Autopsy
Arnaud W. Thille, Andrés Esteban, Pilar Fernández-Segoviano, José-Maria Rodriguez, José-Antonio Aramburu, Oscar Peñuelas, Irene Cortés-Puch, Pablo Cardinal-Fernández, José A. Lorente and Fernando Frutos-Vivar Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. April 1, 2013 vol. 187 no. 7 761-767
Abstract: Rationale: A revised definition of clinical criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the Berlin definition, was recently established to classify patients according to their severity.
2013 Apr 1 - Therapeutic Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Ex Vivo Human Lungs Injured with Live Bacteria
Jae W. Lee, Anna Krasnodembskaya, David H. McKenna, Yuanlin Song, Jason Abbott, and Michael A. Matthay Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. April 1, 2013 vol. 187 no. 7 751-760
Abstract: Rationale: Mesenchymal stem cells secrete paracrine factors that can regulate lung permeability and decrease inflammation, making it a potentially attractive therapy for acute lung injury. However, concerns exist whether mesenchymal stem cells’ immunomodulatory properties may have detrimental effects if targeted toward infectious causes of lung injury.
2013 Apr 1 - A Multicenter Randomized Trial of Atorvastatin Therapy in Intensive Care Patients with Severe Sepsis
Peter Kruger, Michael Bailey, Rinaldo Bellomo, David James Cooper, Meg Harward, Alisa Higgins, Belinda Howe, Darryl Jones, Chris Joyce, Karam Kostner, John McNeil, Alistair Nichol, Michael S. Roberts, Gillian Syres, Bala Venkatesh and for the ANZ-STATInS Investigators–ANZICS Clinical Trials Group Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. April 1, 2013 vol. 187 no. 7 743-750
Abstract: Rationale: Observational studies link statin therapy with improved outcomes in patients with severe sepsis.
2013 Apr 1 - Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Predicts the Onset of Acute Lung Injury in Critically Ill Patients
Ashish Agrawal, Michael A. Matthay, Kirsten N. Kangelaris, John Stein, Jeffrey C. Chu, Brandon M. Imp, Alfredo Cortez, Jason Abbott, Kathleen D. Liu, and Carolyn S. Calfee Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. April 1, 2013 vol. 187 no. 7 736-742
Abstract: Rationale: Current clinical prediction scores for acute lung injury (ALI) have limited positive predictive value. No studies have evaluated predictive plasma biomarkers in a broad population of critically ill patients or as an adjunct to clinical prediction scores.
Osamu Takasu, Joseph P. Gaut, Eizo Watanabe, Kathleen To, R. Eliot Fagley, Brian Sato, Steve Jarman, Igor R. Efimov, Deborah L. , Anil Srivastava, Sam B. Bhayani, Anne Drewry, Paul E. Swanson and Richard S. Hotchkiss Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. March 1, 2013 vol. 187 no. 5 509-517
Rationale: The mechanistic basis for cardiac and renal dysfunction in sepsis is unknown. In particular, the degree and type of cell death is undefined.
Rationale: Critical illness myopathy (CIM) has no known cause and no treatment. Immobilization and impaired glucose metabolism are implicated.
2013 Feb 1 - Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)–induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome:A Cohort Study and Propensity-matched Analysis
Rationale: Many patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by influenza A(H1N1) infection receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a rescue therapy.
2013 Feb 1 - Epithelial Pten Controls Acute Lung Injury and Fibrosis by Regulating Alveolar Epithelial Cell Integrity
Rationale: Injury to alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and to their repair process is integral to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The mechanisms regulating the integrity of AECs and their intrinsic regulators remain unclear. Pten is a tumor suppressor, and its function in epithelial cells during organ fibrosis is unknown.
2013 Feb 1 - Integrating Mortality and Morbidity Outcomes: Using Quality-adjusted Life Years in Critical Care Trials
Rationale: Outcome measures that integrate mortality and morbidity, like quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), have been proposed for critical care clinical trials.
2013 Feb 1 - Role of Disease and Macronutrient Dose in the Randomized Controlled EPaNIC Trial: A Post Hoc Analysis
Rationale: Early parenteral nutrition to supplement insufficient enteral feeding during intensive care (early PN) delays recovery as compared with withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week (late PN).
Rationale: Acute lung injury is a common complication after severe trauma, which predisposes patients to multiple organ failure. This syndrome largely accounts for the late mortality that arises and despite many theories, the pathological mechanism is not fully understood. Discovery of histone-induced toxicity in mice presents a new dimension for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology.
Evidence has accumulated that respiratory muscle dysfunction develops in critically ill patients and contributes to prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation. Accordingly, it seems highly appropriate to monitor the respiratory muscles in these patients.
2013 Jan 1 - CXCL10-CXCR3 Enhances the Development of Neutrophil-mediated Fulminant Lung Injury of Viral and Nonviral Origin
Rationale: Patients who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after infection with severe respiratory viruses (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus, H5N1 avian influenza virus), exhibited unusually high levels of CXCL10, which belongs to the non-ELR (glutamic-leucine-arginine) CXC chemokine superfamily. CXCL10 may not be a bystander to the severe virus infection but may directly contribute to the pathogenesis of neutrophil-mediated, excessive pulmonary inflammation.
2012 Dec 15 - Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure Caused by Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Rationale: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is widely used in episodes of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is no evidence on the efficacy of NIV during similar episodes in obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS).
2012 Dec 15 - Randomized Controlled Trial of Chlorhexidine Dressing and Highly Adhesive Dressing for Preventing Catheter-related Infections in Critically Ill Adults
Rationale: Most vascular catheter-related infections (CRIs) occur extraluminally in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Chlorhexidine-impregnated and strongly adherent dressings may decrease catheter colonization and CRI rates.
2012 Dec 15 - Severe Sepsis in Pre-Hospital Emergency Care: Analysis of Incidence, Care, and Outcome
Rationale: Severe sepsis is common and highly morbid, yet the epidemiology of severe sepsis at the frontier of the health care system—pre-hospital emergency care—is unknown.
2012 Dec 15 - Natriuretic Peptide–driven Fluid Management during Ventilator Weaning: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Rationale: Difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation is often associated with fluid overload. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been proposed as a tool for predicting and detecting weaning failure of cardiovascular origin.
2012 Dec 1 - Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Lipid Accumulation in the Human Diaphragm during Mechanical Ventilation
Rationale: Mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with adverse effects on the diaphragm, but the cellular basis for this phenomenon, referred to as ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD), is poorly understood.
2012 Dec 1 - Parent Presence during Invasive Procedures and Resuscitation: Evaluating a Clinical Practice Change
Rationale: Parent presence during invasive procedures and/or resuscitation is a relatively underdeveloped and controversial practice. Much of the concern stems from the apprehension of the medical community.
2012 Nov 15 - BLT1-dependent Alveolar Recruitment of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Is Important for Resolution of Acute Lung Injury
Rationale: Recent study has demonstrated that CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) contribute to the resolution of an experimental acute lung injury (ALI). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the alveolar recruitment of Treg remains unclear.