2012 Apr 15 - A Critical Role for Muscle Ring Finger-1 in Acute Lung Injury–associated Skeletal Muscle Wasting

D. Clark Files, Franco R. D'Alessio, Laura F. Johnston, Priya Kesari, Neil R. Aggarwal, Brian T. Garibaldi, Jason R. Mock, Jessica L. Simmers, Antonio DeGorordo, Jared Murdoch, Monte S. Willis, Cam Patterson, Clarke G. Tankersley, Maria L. Messi, Chun Liu, Osvaldo Delbono, J. David Furlow, Sue C. Bodine, Ronald D. Cohn, Landon S. King and Michael T. Crow  Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2012 vol. 185 no. 8 825-834
Abstract
Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a debilitating condition associated with severe skeletal muscle weakness that persists in humans long after lung injury has resolved. The molecular mechanisms underlying this condition are unknown.

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2012 Apr 1 - Calpastatin Controls Polymicrobial Sepsis by Limiting Procoagulant Microparticle Release

Lara Zafrani, Grigoris Gerotziafas, Colleen Byrnes, Xuzhen Hu, Joelle Perez, Charlène Lévi, Sandrine Placier, Emmanuel Letavernier, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Jean-philippe Haymann, Ismail Elalamy, Jeffrey L. Miller, Robert A. Star, Peter S. T. Yuen and Laurent Baud  Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 1, 2012 vol. 185 no. 7 744-755
Abstract
Rationale: Sepsis, a leading cause of death worldwide, involves widespread activation of inflammation, massive activation of coagulation, and lymphocyte apoptosis. Calpains, calcium-activated cysteine proteases, have been shown to increase inflammatory reactions and lymphocyte apoptosis. Moreover, calpain plays an essential role in microparticle release.

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2012 Apr 1 - Twenty-four–Hour Intensivist Presence A Pilot Study of Effects on Intensive Care Unit Patients, Families, Doctors, and Nurses

Allan Garland, Dan Roberts and Lesley Graff  Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 1, 2012 vol. 185 no. 7 738-743
Abstract
Rationale: Around-the-clock intensivist presence in intensive care units (ICUs) has been promoted as necessary to optimize outcomes. Little data have addressed how it affects the multiple stakeholders in such care.

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2012 Mar 15 - Automatic Control of Pressure Support for Ventilator Weaning in Surgical Intensive Care Patients

Dirk Schädler, Christoph Engel, Gunnar Elke, Sven Pulletz, Nils Haake, Inéz Frerichs, Günther Zick, Jens Scholz and Norbert Weiler Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. March 15, 2012 vol. 185 no. 6 637-644
Abstract
Rationale: Despite its ability to reduce overall ventilation time, protocol-guided weaning from mechanical ventilation is not routinely used in daily clinical practice. Clinical implementation of weaning protocols could be facilitated by integration of knowledge-based, closed-loop controlled protocols into respirators.

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2012 Mar 15 - Disruption of Platelet-derived Chemokine Heteromers Prevents Neutrophil Extravasation in Acute Lung Injury

Jochen Grommes, Jean-Eric Alard, Maik Drechsler, Sarawuth Wantha, Matthias Mörgelin, Wolfgang M. Kuebler, Michael Jacobs, Philipp von Hundelshausen, Philipp Markart, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Klaus T. Preissner, Tilman M. Hackeng, Rory R. Koenen, Christian Weber and Oliver Soehnlein Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. March 15, 2012 vol. 185 no. 6 628-636
Abstract
Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) causes high mortality, but its molecular mechanisms and therapeutic options remain ill-defined. Gram-negative bacterial infections are the main cause of ALI, leading to lung neutrophil infiltration, permeability increases, deterioration of gas exchange, and lung damage. Platelets are activated during ALI, but insights into their mechanistic contribution to neutrophil accumulation in the lung are elusive.

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2012 Mar 1 - Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

Oscar J. Bienvenu, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Pedro A. Mendez-Tellez, Victor D. Dinglas, Carl Shanholtz, Nadia Husain, Cheryl R. Dennison, Margaret S. Herridge, Peter J. Pronovost and Dale M. Needham  Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. March 1, 2012 vol. 185 no. 5 517-524
Abstract
Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear.

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2012 Mar 1 - Sedation and Analgesia in the Mechanically Ventilated Patient

Shruti B. Patel and John P. Kress  Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. March 1, 2012 vol. 185 no. 5 486-497
Abstract
Sedation and analgesia are important components of care for the mechanically ventilated patient in the intensive care unit (ICU). An understanding of commonly used medications is essential to formulate a sedation plan for individual patients.

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2012 Feb 15 - Activin-A Overexpression in the Murine Lung Causes Pathology That Simulates Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Eirini Apostolou, Athanasios Stavropoulos, Alexandros Sountoulidis, Charoula Xirakia, Stavros Giaglis, Evdokia Protopapadakis, Konstantinos Ritis, Spyros Mentzelopoulos, Arja Pasternack, Martyn Foster, Olli Ritvos, George E. Tzelepis, Evangelos Andreakos and Paschalis Sideras  Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. February 15, 2012 vol. 185 no. 4 382-391 
Abstract
Rationale: Activin-A is up-regulated in various respiratory disorders. However, its precise role in pulmonary pathophysiology has not been adequately substantiated in vivo.

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2012 Feb 1 - Regulation of Lymphocyte Trafficking by CXC Chemokine Receptor 3 during Septic Shock

Daniela S. Herzig, Brandon R. Driver, Geping Fang, Tracy E. Toliver-Kinsky, Eric N. Shute and Edward R. Sherwood  Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. February 1, 2012 vol. 185 no. 3 291-300
Abstract
Rationale: Lymphocytes have been shown to facilitate systemic inflammation and physiologic dysfunction in experimental models of severe sepsis. Our previous studies show that natural killer (NK) cells migrate into the peritoneal cavity during intraabdominal sepsis, but the trafficking of NKT and T lymphocytes has not been determined. The factors that regulate lymphocyte trafficking during sepsis are currently unknown.

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2012 Jan 15 - Systemic Steroids in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

Gourang P. Patel and Robert A. Balk  Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. January 15, 2012 vol. 185 no. 2 133-139
Abstract
Despite more than 5 decades of study and debate, the role of corticosteroid treatment in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock remains controversial. Data support a beneficial effect on systemic blood pressure in patients with septic shock. However, the ability of corticosteroid therapy to improve mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock remains controversial, with contradictory results from recent large multicenter clinical trials.

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2012 Jan 15 - Lung Endothelial Ca2+ and Permeability Response to Platelet-Activating Factor Is Mediated by Acid Sphingomyelinase and Transient Receptor Potential Classical 6

Rudi Samapati, Yang Yang, Jun Yin, Christof Stoerger, Christoph Arenz, Alexander Dietrich, Thomas Gudermann, Dieter Adam, Songwei Wu, Marc Freichel, Veit Flockerzi, Stefan Uhlig, and Wolfgang M. Kuebler  Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. January 15, 2012 vol. 185 no. 2 160-170
Abstract
Rationale: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) increases lung vascular permeability within minutes by activation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and a subsequent nitric oxide (NO)-inhibitable and Ca2+-dependent loss in barrier function.

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2011 Dec 15 - Absence of Integrin αvβ3 Enhances Vascular Leak in Mice by Inhibiting Endothelial Cortical Actin Formation

George Su1, Amha Atakilit1, John T. Li1, Nanyan Wu1, Mallar Bhattacharya1, Jieling Zhu1, Jennifer E. Shieh1, Elizabeth Li1, Robert Chen1, Stephen Sun1, Cynthia P. Su1 and Dean Sheppard1. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. January 1, 2012 vol. 185 no. 1 58-66
Abstract
Rationale: Sepsis and acute lung injury (ALI) have devastatingly high mortality rates. Both are associated with increased vascular leak, a process regulated by complex molecular mechanisms.

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2011 Dec 15 - The Implications of Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Transfer Practices for Measures of In-Hospital Mortality and Length of Stay

William B. Hall1, Laura E. Willis2, Sofia Medvedev3 and Shannon S. Carson1. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. January 1, 2012 vol. 185 no. 1 53-57
Rationale: The National Quality Forum recently endorsed in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) as quality indicators for patients in the intensive care unit. These measures may be affected by transferring patients to long-term acute care hospitals (LTACs).

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2011 Dec 1 - Intestinal Injury and Endotoxemia in Children Undergoing Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease

Nazima Pathan1,3,4, Margarita Burmester4,*, Tanja Adamovic4,*, Maurice Berk2,*, Keng Wooi Ng3, Helen Betts4, Duncan Macrae4, Simon Waddell5, Mark Paul-Clark3, Rosamund Nuamah6, Charles Mein6, Michael Levin1, Giovanni Montana2 and Jane A. Mitchell3. Published ahead of print on August 25, 2011, doi: 10.1164/rccm.201104-0715OC. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. December 1, 2011 vol. 184 no. 11 1261-1269
Rationale: Children with congenital heart disease are at risk of gut barrier dysfunction and translocation of gut bacterial antigens into the bloodstream. This may contribute to inflammatory activation and organ dysfunction postoperatively.

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2011 Nov 15 - Burnout in ICU Caregivers: A Multicenter Study of Factors Associated to Centers

Paolo Merlani1, Mélanie Verdon1, Adrian Businger2, Guido Domenighetti3, Hans Pargger2, Bara Ricou1 and the STRESI+ Group*. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 184. pp. 1140-1146, (2011)
Rationale: The stressful work environment of ICUs can lead to burnout. Burnout can impact on the welfare and performance of caregivers, and may lead them to resign their job. The shortage of ICU caregivers is becoming a real threat for health care leaders.

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2011 Nov 15 - Attributable Mortality of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A Reappraisal Using Causal Analysis

Maarten Bekaert1, Jean-Francois Timsit2,3, Stijn Vansteelandt1,4, Pieter Depuydt5,6, Aurélien Vésin3, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas7, Johan Decruyenaere5, Christophe Clec'h8, Elie Azoulay9, Dominique Benoit5 on behalf of the Outcomerea Study Group* Published ahead of print on August 18, 2011, doi:10.1164/rccm.201105-0867OC. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 184. pp. 1133-1139, (2011)
Rationale: Measuring the attributable mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is challenging and prone to different forms of bias. Studies addressing this issue have produced variable and controversial results.

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2011 Nov 1 - The Effect of Insurance Status on Mortality and Procedural Use in Critically Ill Patients

Sarah M. Lyon1,2, Nicole M. Benson2, Colin R. Cooke3,4, Theodore J. Iwashyna3, Sarah J. Ratcliffe2 and Jeremy M. Kahn5,6 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 184. pp. 809-815, (2011)
Rationale: Lack of health insurance may be an independent risk factor for mortality and differential treatment in critical illness.

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2011 Nov 1 - Continuity of Care in Intensive Care Units: Cluster-Randomized Trial of Intensivist Staffing

Naeem A. Ali1, Karen M. Wolf2, Jeffrey Hammersley3, Stephen P. Hoffmann1, James M. O'Brien, Jr.1, Gary S. Phillips4, Mitchell Rashkin5, Edward Warren6, Allan Garland7 and on behalf of the Midwest Critical Care Consortium. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 184. pp. 803-808, (2011)
Rationale: Little is known about the consequences of intensivists’ work schedules, or intensivist continuity of care.

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2011 Sep 15 - Prompting Physicians to Address a Daily Checklist and Process of Care and Clinical Outcomes: A Single-Site Study

Curtis H. Weiss1, Farzad Moazed2, Colleen A. McEvoy2, Benjamin D. Singer2, Igal Szleifer3,4, Luís A. N. Amaral5,6, Mary Kwasny7, Charles M. Watts1,8, Stephen D. Persell9,10, David W. Baker9,10, Jacob I. Sznajder1 and Richard G. Wunderink1 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 184. pp. 680-686, (2011)
Rationale: Checklists may reduce errors of omission for critically ill patients.

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2011 Sep 15 - Noninvasive Ventilation and Weaning in Patients with Chronic Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure: A Randomized Multicenter Trial

Christophe Girault1,2, Michael Bubenheim3, Fekri Abroug4, Jean Luc Diehl5, Souheil Elatrous6, Pascal Beuret7, Jack Richecoeur8, Erwan L'Her9, Gilles Hilbert10, Gilles Capellier11, Antoine Rabbat12, Mohamed Besbes13, Claude Guérin14, Philippe Guiot15, Jacques Bénichou3,16, Guy Bonmarchand1,2 and for the VENISE Trial Group*. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 184. pp. 672-679, (2011)
Rationale: The use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as an early weaning/extubation technique from mechanical ventilation remains controversial.

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