2015 May 1 - The Timing of Discharge from the Intensive Care Unit and Subsequent Mortality. A Prospective, Multicenter Study

John D. Santamaria, Graeme J. Duke, David V. Pilcher, D. James Cooper, John Moran, and Rinaldo Bellomo  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. May 1, 2015, vol. 191, no. 9: 1033-1039

Rationale: Previous studies suggested an association between after-hours intensive care unit (ICU) discharge and increased hospital mortality. Their retrospective design and lack of correction for patient factors present at the time of discharge make this association problematic.

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2015 May 1 - Ethanol Lock and Risk of Hemodialysis Catheter Infection in Critically Ill Patients. A Randomized Controlled Trial

Bertrand Souweine, Alexandre Lautrette, Didier Gruson, Emmanuel Canet, Kada Klouche, Laurent Argaud, Julien Bohe, Maïté Garrouste-Orgeas, Christophe Mariat, François Vincent, Sophie Cayot, Olivier Cointault, Alain Lepape, Dominique Guelon, Michael Darmon, Aurélien Vesin, Nicolas Caillot, Carole Schwebel, Alexandre Boyer, Elie Azoulay, Lila Bouadma, and Jean-François Timsit  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. May 1, 2015, vol. 191, no. 9: 1024-1032

Rationale: Ethanol rapidly eradicated experimental biofilm. Clinical studies of ethanol lock to prevent catheter-related infections (CRIs) suggest preventive efficacy. No such studies have been done in intensive care units (ICU).

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2015 Apr 15 - Association of Hospital-Level Volume of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Cases and Mortality. Analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry

Ryan P. Barbaro, Folafoluwa O. Odetola, Kelley M. Kidwell, Matthew L. Paden, Robert H. Bartlett, Matthew M. Davis, and Gail M. Annich  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Apr 15, 2015, vol. 191, no. 8: 894-901

Rationale: Recent pediatric studies suggest a survival benefit exists for higher-volume extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers.

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2015 Mar 15 - Randomized Intubation with Polyurethane or Conical Cuffs to Prevent Pneumonia in Ventilated Patients

François Philippart, Stéphane Gaudry, Laurent Quinquis, Nicolas Lau, Islem Ouanes, Samia Touati, Jean Claude Nguyen, Catherine Branger, Frédéric Faibis, Maha Mastouri, Xavier Forceville, Fekri Abroug, Jean Damien Ricard, Sophie Grabar, and Benoît Misset  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Mar 15, 2015; vol. 191, no. 6: 637-645

Rationale: The occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is linked to the aspiration of contaminated pharyngeal secretions around the endotracheal tube. Tubes with cuffs made of polyurethane rather than polyvinyl chloride or with a conical rather than a cylindrical shape increase tracheal sealing.

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2015 Mar 1 - Rapid Automated Microscopy for Microbiological Surveillance of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia

Ivor S. Douglas, Connie S. Price, Katherine H. Overdier, Robert F. Wolken, Steven W. Metzger, Kenneth R. Hance, and David C. Howson  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Mar 1, 2015, vol. 191, no. 5: 566-573

Rationale: Diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is imprecise.

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2015 Feb 15 - Critical Care Bed Growth in the United States. A Comparison of Regional and National Trends

David J. Wallace, Derek C. Angus, Christopher W. Seymour, Amber E. Barnato, and Jeremy M. Kahn  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Feb 15, 2015, vol. 191, no. 4: 410-416

Rationale: Although the number of intensive care unit (ICU) beds in the United States is increasing, it is unknown whether this trend is consistent across all regions.

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2015 Feb 1 - The Preventability of Ventilator-associated Events. The CDC Prevention Epicenters Wake Up and Breathe Collaborative

Michael Klompas, Deverick Anderson, William Trick, Hilary Babcock, Meeta Prasad Kerlin, Lingling Li, Ronda Sinkowitz-Cochran, E. Wesley Ely, John Jernigan, Shelley Magill, Rosie Lyles, Caroline O’Neil, Barrett T. Kitch, Ellen Arrington, Michele C. Balas, Ken Kleinman, Christina Bruce, Julie Lankiewicz, Michael V. Murphy, Christopher E. Cox, Ebbing Lautenbach, Daniel Sexton, Victoria Fraser, Robert A. Weinstein, and Richard Platt  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jan 15, 2015, vol. 191, no. 3: 292-301

Rationale: The CDC introduced ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions in January 2013. Little is known about VAE prevention. We hypothesized that daily, coordinated spontaneous awakening trials (SATs) and spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) might prevent VAEs.

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2015 Jan 15 - The Impact of the Organization of High-Dependency Care on Acute Hospital Mortality and Patient Flow for Critically Ill Patients

Hannah Wunsch, David A. Harrison, Andrew Jones, and Kathryn Rowan  Am. J.  Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jan 15, 2015, vol. 191, No. 2: 186-193

Rationale: Little is known about the utility of provision of high-dependency care (HDC) that is in a geographically separate location from a primary intensive care unit (ICU).

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2015 Jan 15 - Timing of Low Tidal Volume Ventilation and Intensive Care Unit Mortality in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. A Prospective Cohort Study

Dale M. Needham, Ting Yang, Victor D. Dinglas, Pedro A. Mendez-Tellez, Carl Shanholtz, Jonathan E. Sevransky, Roy G. Brower, Peter J. Pronovost, and Elizabeth Colantuoni  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jan 15, 2015, vol. 191, no. 2: 177-185

Rationale: Reducing tidal volume decreases mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the effect of the timing of low tidal volume ventilation is not well understood.

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2015 Jan 1 - The Association between Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Delirium, and In-Hospital Mortality in Intensive Care Unit Patients

S. Jean Hsieh, Graciela J. Soto, Aluko A. Hope, Ana Ponea, and Michelle N. Gong  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Jan 1, 2015, vol. 191, no. 1: 71-78.

Rationale: Both acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and intensive care unit (ICU) delirium are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, the risk of delirium and its impact on mortality in ARDS patients is unknown.

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2014 Dec 1 - Patient-Centric Blood Pressure–targeted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Improves Survival from Cardiac Arrest

Robert M. Sutton, Stuart H. Friess, Maryam Y. Naim, Joshua W. Lampe, George Bratinov, Theodore R. Weiland III, Mia Garuccio, Vinay M. Nadkarni, Lance B. Becker, and Robert A. Berg  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Nov 15, 2014; vol. 190, no. 11: 1255-1262

Rationale: Although current resuscitation guidelines are rescuer focused, the opportunity exists to develop patient-centered resuscitation strategies that optimize the hemodynamic response of the individual in the hopes to improve survival.

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2014 Dec 1 - Red Blood Cells Induce Necroptosis of Lung Endothelial Cells and Increase Susceptibility to Lung Inflammation

Danielle Y. Qing, David Conegliano, Michael G. S. Shashaty, Jeongyun Seo, John P. Reilly, G. Scott Worthen, Dongeun Huh, Nuala J. Meyer, and Nilam S. Mangalmurti  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Nov 15, 2014; vol. 190: no. 11: 1243-1254

Rationale: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are associated with increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the critically ill, yet the mechanisms for enhanced susceptibility to ARDS conferred by RBC transfusions remain unknown.

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2014 Nov 15 - Procalcitonin Algorithm in Critically Ill Adults with Undifferentiated Infection or Suspected Sepsis. A Randomized Controlled Trial

Yahya Shehabi, Martin Sterba, Peter Maxwell Garrett, Kanaka Sundaram Rachakonda, Dianne Stephens, Peter Harrigan, Alison Walker, Michael J. Bailey, Bronwyn Johnson, David Millis, Geoff Ding, Sandra Peake, Helen Wong, Jane Thomas, Kate Smith, Loretta Forbes, Miranda Hardie, Sharon Micallef, and John F. Fraser  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Nov 15, 2014, vol. 190, no. 10: 1102-1110

Rationale: The role of procalcitonin (PCT), a widely used sepsis biomarker, in critically ill patients with sepsis is undetermined.

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2014 Nov 1 - Association of Postdischarge Rehabilitation with Mortality in Intensive Care Unit Survivors of Sepsis

Pei-wen Chao, Chia-Jen Shih, Yi-Jung Lee, Ching-Min Tseng, Shu-Chen Kuo, Yu-Ning Shih, Kun-Ta Chou, Der-Cherng Tarng, Szu-Yuan Li, Shuo-Ming Ou, and Yung-Tai Chen  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Nov 1, 2014, vol. 190, no. 9: 1003-1011

Rationale: Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness is a common issue for sepsis survivors that is characterized by impaired muscle strength and causes functional disability. Although inpatient rehabilitation has not been found to reduce in-hospital mortality, the impact of postdischarge rehabilitation on sepsis survivors is uncertain.

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2014 Sep 15 - The Relationship between Hospital Volume and Mortality in Severe Sepsis

David F. Gaieski, J. Matthew Edwards, Michael J. Kallan, Mark E. Mikkelsen, Munish Goyal, and Brendan G. Carr  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Sep 15, 2014, vol. 190, no. 6: 665-674

Rationale: Severe sepsis is increasing in incidence and has a high rate of inpatient mortality. Hospitals that treat a larger number of patients with severe sepsis may offer a survival advantage.

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2014 Sep 15 - A Functional Synonymous Coding Variant in the IL1RN Gene Is Associated with Survival in Septic Shock

Nuala J. Meyer, Jane F. Ferguson, Rui Feng, Fan Wang, Parth N. Patel, Mingyao Li, Chenyi Xue, Liming Qu, Yichuan Liu, John H. Boyd, James A. Russell, Jason D. Christie, Keith R. Walley, and Muredach P. Reilly  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Sep 15, 2014, vol. 190, no. 6: 656-664

Rationale: Death from infection is a highly heritable trait, yet there are few genetic variants with known mechanism influencing survival during septic shock.

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2014 Sep 15 - Multicenter Development and Validation of a Risk Stratification Tool for Ward Patients

Matthew M. Churpek, Trevor C. Yuen, Christopher Winslow, Ari A. Robicsek, David O. Meltzer, Robert D. Gibbons, and Dana P. Edelson  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Sep 15, 2014, vol. 190, no. 6: 649-655

Rationale: Most ward risk scores were created using subjective opinion in individual hospitals and only use vital signs.

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2014 Sep 1 - Randomized Controlled Trial of Calcitriol in Severe Sepsis

David E. Leaf, Anas Raed, Michael W. Donnino, Adit A. Ginde, and Sushrut S. Waikar  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Sep 1, 2014, vol. 190, no. 5: 533-541

Rationale: Vitamin D and its metabolites have potent immunomodulatory effects in vitro, including up-regulation of cathelicidin, a critical antimicrobial protein.

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2014 Sep 1 - A Novel Tumor Necrosis Factor–mediated Mechanism of Direct Epithelial Sodium Channel Activation

István Czikora, Abdel Alli, Hui-Fang Bao, David Kaftan, Supriya Sridhar, Hans-Jürgen Apell, Boris Gorshkov, Richard White, Astrid Zimmermann, Albrecht Wendel, Meike Pauly-Evers, Jürg Hamacher, Irène Garcia-Gabay, Bernhard Fischer, Alexander Verin, Zsolt Bagi, Jean Francois Pittet, Waheed Shabbir, Rosa Lemmens-Gruber, Trinad Chakraborty, Ahmed Lazrak, Michael A. Matthay, Douglas C. Eaton, and Rudolf Lucas  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Sep 1, 2014, vol. 190, no. 5: 522-532

Rationale: Alveolar liquid clearance is regulated by Na+ uptake through the apically expressed epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and basolaterally localized Na+-K+-ATPase in type II alveolar epithelial cells. Dysfunction of these Na+ transporters during pulmonary inflammation can contribute to pulmonary edema.

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2014 Aug 15 - Acute Outcomes and 1-Year Mortality of Intensive Care Unit–acquired Weakness. A Cohort Study and Propensity-matched Analysis

Greet Hermans, Helena Van Mechelen, Beatrix Clerckx, Tine Vanhullebusch, Dieter Mesotten, Alexander Wilmer, Michael P. Casaer, Philippe Meersseman, Yves Debaveye, Sophie Van Cromphaut, Pieter J. Wouters, Rik Gosselink, and Greet Van den Berghe  Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. Aug 15, 2014, vol. 190, no. 4: 410-420

Rationale: Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness is a frequent complication of critical illness. It is unclear whether it is a marker or mediator of poor outcomes.

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