Recent findings: Common complications encountered following LTx include primary graft dysfunction (PGD), airway complications, acute rejection, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and infection, all of which impact significantly on long-term survival. PGD arises in the first weeks following transplantation. Acute rejection, airway complications and TMA represent the main complications in the first posttransplantation year. CLAD usually occurs later, but continues to represent the main obstacle to long-term survival. Infection poses significant risk at all stages following transplantation and a full spectrum of bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens has been implicated.

Summary: This review highlights the most important complications after LTx and gives an update on diagnostic algorithms and treatment challenges for patients following LTx.

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