Carcillo JA.: Curr Opin Crit Care. 2014 Aug;20(4):396-401.

Purpose of review: To review the past year's literature, and selected prior literature relevant to these most recent findings, regarding intravenous fluid choices in the management of critically ill children.

Recent findings: Twenty-eight publications were identified using the keywords pediatrics and intravenous fluid in the PubMed database. The subjects identified included intravenous fluid choices related to perioperative maintenance fluid management, rehydration for dehydration related to diarrhea losses, rehydration in diabetic ketoacidosis, intravenous fluid needs during mechanical ventilation, use of intravenous fluids as hyperosmolar agents in traumatic brain injury, isotonic fluid bolus resuscitation for sepsis-related capillary leak syndrome-induced hypovolemic shock, maintenance intravenous fluid and blood transfusion for malaria-associated euvolemic severe anemia shock, isotonic fluid and blood boluses for trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock, and isotonic fluid boluses and generous maintenance infusion for burn resuscitation.

Summary:  Because intravenous fluid can be helpful or harmful, it can only be safely done in critically ill children when using state-of-the-art monitoring of patient volume, electrolyte, osmolarity, pH, and glucose status.

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