Goren O, Matot I.; Curr Opin Crit Care. 2016 Aug;22(4):370-8.

Purpose of review: In this review, we discuss the latest updates on perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and the specific considerations that are relevant to different surgeries and patient populations.

Recent findings: AKI diagnosis is constantly evolving. New biomarkers detect AKI early and shed a light on the possible cause of AKI. Hypotension, even for a short duration, is associated with perioperative AKI. The debate on the deleterious effects of chloride-rich solutions is still far from conclusion. Remote ischemic preconditioning is showing promising results in the possible prevention of perioperative AKI. No definite data show a beneficiary effect of statins, fenoldepam, or sodium bicarbonate in preventing AKI.

Summary: Perioperative AKI is prevalent and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Considering the lack of effective preventive or therapeutic interventions, this review focuses on perioperative AKI: measures for early diagnosis, defining risks and possible mechanisms, and summarizing current knowledge for intraoperative fluid and hemodynamic management to reduce risk of AKI.

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