Minokadeh A, Pinsky MR.; Curr Opin Crit Care. 2016 Aug;22(4):393-400.

Purpose of review: The purpose of the review is to identify the recently validated minimally invasive or noninvasive monitoring devices used to both monitor and guide resuscitation in the critically ill patients.

Recent findings: Recent advances in noninvasive measures of blood pressure, blood flow, and vascular tone have been validated and complement existing minimally invasive and invasive monitoring techniques. These monitoring approaches should be used within the context of a focused physical examination and static vital sign analysis. When available, measurement of urinary output is often included. All studies show that minimally invasive and noninvasive measure of arterial pressure and cardiac output are possible and often remain as accurate as invasive measures. The noninvasive techniques degrade in severe circulatory failure and the use of vasopressor therapy. Importantly, these output parameters form the treatment goals for many goal-directed therapies protocols.

Summary: When coupled with a focused physical examination and functional hemodynamic monitoring analyses, these measures become even more specific at defining volume responsiveness and vasomotor tone and can be used to drive resuscitation strategies.

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