Ribaric SF, Turel M, Knafelj R, Gorjup V, Stanic R, Gradisek P, Cerovic O, Mirkovic T, Noc M.; Resuscitation. 2017 Feb;111:103-109.

AIM: To investigate benefits of prophylactic antibiotics in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

METHODS: Patients without evidence of tracheobronchial aspiration on admission bronchoscopy were randomized to prophylactic Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid 1.2g every 8h (P) or clinically-driven antibiotics (C) administered if signs of infection developed during initial 7days of intensive care unit (ICU) stay.

RESULTS: Among 83 patients enrolled between September 2013 and February 2015, tracheobronchial aspiration was documented in 23 (28%). Accordingly, 60 patients were randomized. Percentage of patients on antibiotics between days 1-5 was significantly greater in P group. White blood count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT) and CD 64 significantly increased during the postresuscitation phase. Except for lower CRP and PCT in group P on day 6 (p<0.05), there was no significant differences. Mini BAL on day 3 was less often positive in group P (7% vs. 42%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in other microbiological samples and X-ray signs of pneumonia cumulatively documented in 50% in both groups. Use of vasopressors/inotropes (93% in both groups), duration of mechanical ventilation (5.4±3.7 vs. 5.2±3.1 days), tracheal intubation (6.5±4.6 vs. 5.9±4.3 days), ICU stay (7.7±5.2 vs. 6.9±4.5 days), survival (73% vs. 73%) and survival with good neurological outcome (50% vs. 40%) were also comparable between P and C groups.

CONCLUSION: Bronchoscopy on admission documented tracheobronchial aspiration in 28% of comatose survivors of OHCA. In the absence of aspiration, prophylactic antibiotics did not significantly alter systemic inflammatory response, postresuscitation pneumonia, ICU treatment and outcome.

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