2013 Aug - Early Acute Lung Injury: Criteria for Identifying Lung Injury Prior to the Need for Positive Pressure Ventilation

Levitt, Joseph E.; Calfee, Carolyn S.; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; Vojnik, Rosemary; Matthay, Michael A.; Critical Care Medicine. 41(8):1929-1937, August 2013.

Objective: Mortality associated with acute lung injury remains high. Early identification of acute lung injury prior to onset of respiratory failure may provide a therapeutic window to target in future clinical trials. The recently validated Lung Injury Prediction Score identifies patients at risk for acute lung injury but may be limited for routine clinical use. We sought to empirically derive clinical criteria for a pragmatic definition of early acute lung injury to identify patients with lung injury prior to the need for positive pressure ventilation.

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2013 Aug - Effect of Plasma-to-RBC Ratios in Trauma Patients: A Cohort Study With Time-Dependent Data

Halmin, Märit; Boström, Fredrik; Brattström, Olof; Lundahl, Joachim; Wikman, Agneta; Östlund, Anders; Edgren, Gustaf; Critical Care Medicine. 41(8):1905-1914, August 2013.

Background: A widespread approach today is to transfuse bleeding trauma patients with RBC concentrates and plasma at a 1:1 ratio. This regime is supported by a range of observational studies showing lower mortality in bleeding patients receiving equal volumes of plasma and RBCs. The rationale for this practice is still unclear with several studies failing to show any survival benefits of increased plasma use, perhaps due to a failure to account for the timing of transfused units.

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2013 Aug - Clostridium difficile Infection: A Multicenter Study of Epidemiology and Outcomes in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

Micek, Scott T.; Schramm, Garrett; Morrow, Lee; Frazee, Erin; Personett, Heather; Doherty, Joshua A.; Hampton, Nicholas; Hoban, Alex; Lieu, Angela; McKenzie, Matthew; Dubberke, Erik R.; Kollef, Marin H.; Critical Care Medicine. 41(8):1968-1975, August 2013.

Objectives: Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of hospital-associated infection in the United States. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of C. difficile infection among mechanically ventilated patients within the ICUs of three academic hospitals and secondarily describe the influence of C. difficile infection on the outcomes of these patients.

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2013 Aug - Early Goal-Directed Sedation Versus Standard Sedation in Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patients: A Pilot Study

Shehabi, Yahya; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Reade, Michael C.; Bailey, Michael; Bass, Frances; Howe, Belinda; McArthur, Colin; Murray, Lynne; Seppelt, Ian M.; Webb, Steve; Weisbrodt, Leonie; for the Sedation Practice in Intensive Care Evaluation (SPICE) Study Investigators and the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS); Critical Care Medicine. 41(8):1983-1991, August 2013.

Objective: To assess the feasibility and safety of delivering early goal-directed sedation compared with standard sedation.

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2013 Aug - Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome After Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Elmer, Jonathan; Hou, Peter; Wilcox, Susan R.; Chang, Yuchiao; Schreiber, Hannah; Okechukwu, Ikenna; Pontes-Neto, Octávio; Bajwa, Ednan; Hess, Dean R.; Avery, Laura; Duran-Mendicuti, Maria Alejandra; Camargo, Carlos A. Jr; Greenberg, Steven M.; Rosand, Jonathan; Pallin, Daniel J.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Critical Care Medicine. 41(8):1992-2001, August 2013.

Objectives: Acute respiratory distress syndrome develops commonly in critically ill patients in response to an injurious stimulus. The prevalence and risk factors for development of acute respiratory distress syndrome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage have not been reported. We sought to determine the prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome after intracerebral hemorrhage, characterize risk factors for its development, and assess its impact on patient outcomes.

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2013 Jul - Does the Central Venous Pressure Predict Fluid Responsiveness? An Updated Meta-Analysis and a Plea for Some Common Sense

Marik, Paul E.; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo; Critical Care Medicine. 41(7):1774-1781, July 2013.

Background: Despite a previous meta-analysis that concluded that central venous pressure should not be used to make clinical decisions regarding fluid management, central venous pressure continues to be recommended for this purpose.

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2013 Jul - Mechanical Versus Manual Chest Compressions in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Meta-Analysis

Westfall, Mark; Krantz, Steve; Mullin, Christopher; Kaufman, Christopher; Critical Care Medicine. 41(7):1782-1789, July 2013.

Objective: The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of literature examining rates of return of spontaneous circulation from load-distributing band and piston-driven chest compression devices as compared with manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

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2013 Jul - Clinical Features of Critically Ill Patients With Shiga Toxin-Induced Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

Braune, Stephan A.; Wichmann, Dominic; von Heinz, Marie C.; Nierhaus, Axel; Becker, Heinrich; Meyer, Tobias N.; Meyer, Gerd P.; Müller-Schulz, Matthias; Fricke, Jens; de Weerth, Andreas; Hoepker, Wilhelm-W.; Fiehler, Jens; Magnus, Tim; Gerloff, Christian; Panzer, Ulf; Stahl, Rolf A. K.; Wegscheider, Karl; Kluge, Stefan; Critical Care Medicine. 41(7):1702-1710, July 2013.

Objective: In Spring 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli serotype O104:H4–associated hemolytic uremic syndrome occurred in Northern Germany. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of critically ill patients with Shiga toxin–producing E. coli–associated hemolytic uremic syndrome during this outbreak.

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2013 Jul - Standardized Endoscopic Swallowing Evaluation for Tracheostomy Decannulation in Critically Ill Neurologic Patients

Warnecke, Tobias; Suntrup, Sonja; Teismann, Inga K.; Hamacher, Christina; Oelenberg, Stephan; Dziewas, Rainer; Critical Care Medicine. 41(7):1728-1732, July 2013.

Objectives: Decisions regarding tracheostomy tube removal after mechanical ventilation often depend on the physician’s individual experience because evidence-based practice guidelines are still scarce, especially for critically ill neurologic patients. In these patients, the prevalence of aspiration is high and regarded as an important contributor to decannulation failure. The presence of severe neurological deficits may, however, give clinicians the subjective impression that a tracheostomy tube is still necessary although decannulation may actually be safe. It is therefore crucial to test swallowing function reliably prior to decannulation in this patient population.

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2013 Jul - The Influence of Prehospital Systemic Corticosteroid Use on Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Hospital Outcomes

Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V.; Lee, Augustine S.; Gajic, Ognjen; Festic, Emir; on behalf of U.S. Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group: Lung Injury Prevention Study Investigators (USCIITG–LIPS); Critical Care Medicine. 41(7):1679-1685, July 2013.

Objective: The role of systemic corticosteroids in pathophysiology and treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome is controversial. Use of prehospital systemic corticosteroid therapy may prevent the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and improve hospital outcomes.

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2013 Jul - Early Antibiotic Discontinuation in Patients With Clinically Suspected Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia and Negative Quantitative Bronchoscopy Cultures

Raman, Kirthana; Nailor, Michael D.; Nicolau, David P.; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Nadeau, Michelle; Kuti, Joseph L.; Critical Care Medicine. 41(7):1656-1663, July 2013.

Objectives: Preliminary data suggest that antibiotic discontinuation in patients with negative quantitative bronchoscopy and symptom resolution will not increase mortality. Because our hospital algorithm for antibiotic discontinuation rules out ventilator-associated pneumonia in the setting of negative quantitative bronchoscopy cultures, we compared antibiotic utilization and mortality in empirically treated, culture-negative ventilator-associated pneumonia patients whose antibiotic discontinuation was early versus late.

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2013 Jul - Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support for Refractory Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Severe Bacterial Septic Shock

Bréchot, Nicolas; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Schmidt, Matthieu; Leprince, Pascal; Trouillet, Jean-Louis; Léger, Philippe; Pavie, Alain; Chastre, Jean; Combes, Alain; Critical Care Medicine. 41(7):1616-1626, July 2013.

Objectives: Profound myocardial depression can occur during severe septic shock. Although good outcomes of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation–treated children with refractory septic shock have been reported, little is known about adults’ outcomes. This study was designed to assess the outcomes and long-term health-related quality-of-life of patients supported by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac and hemodynamic failure during severe septic shock.

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2013 Jul - Comparison of Sleep Quality With Mechanical Versus Spontaneous Ventilation During Weaning of Critically Ill Tracheostomized Patients

Roche-Campo, Ferran; Thille, Arnaud W.; Drouot, Xavier; Galia, Fabrice; Margarit, Laurent; Córdoba-Izquierdo, Ana; Mancebo, Jordi; d’Ortho, Marie-Pia; Brochard, Laurent; Critical Care Medicine. 41(7):1637-1644, July 2013.

Background: In mechanically ventilated patients under mechanical ventilation in the ICU, ventilatory mode or settings may influence sleep quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the direct impact of mechanical ventilation per se on sleep quantity and quality in patients who were able to tolerate separation from mechanical ventilation over prolonged periods.

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2013 Jul - Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion to Reduce Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury: A Phase II Multicenter Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

McGuinness, Shay P.; Parke, Rachael L.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Van Haren, Frank M.P.; Bailey, Michael; Critical Care Medicine. 41(7):1599-1607, July 2013.

Objectives: Cardiac surgery–associated acute kidney injury occurs in up to 50% of patients and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to discover if perioperative urinary alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate infusion reduces the prevalence of cardiac surgery–associated acute kidney injury.

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2013 Jun - Benefit of Immediate Beta-Blocker Therapy on Mortality in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Hirschl MM, Wollmann CG, Erhart F, Brunner W, Pfeffel F, Gattermeier M, Steger F, Mayr H.; Crit Care Med. 2013 Jun;41(6):1396-1404.

Objectives: Despite the recommendations to initiate β-blockade to all patients with an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, data concerning the timing of the administration of β-blockers are controversially discussed. In view of these controversies, we analyzed the effect of immediate vs. delayed β-blockade on all-cause mortality of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the Lower Austrian Myocardial Infarction Network.

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2013 Jun - The Effect of Selenium Therapy on Mortality in Patients With Sepsis Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Alhazzani, Waleed; Jacobi, Judith; Sindi, Anees; Hartog, Christiane; Reinhart, Konrad; Kokkoris, Stelios; Gerlach, Herwig; Andrews, Peter; Drabek, Tomas; Manzanares, William; Cook, Deborah J.; Jaeschke, Roman Z.; Critical Care Medicine. 41(6):1555-1564, June 2013.

Background: Patients with sepsis syndrome commonly have low serum selenium levels. Several randomized controlled trials have examined the efficacy of selenium supplementation on mortality in patients with sepsis.

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2013 Jun - Use of Therapeutic Hypothermia After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Mikkelsen ME, Christie JD, Abella BS, Kerlin MP, Fuchs BD, Schweickert WD, Berg RA, Mosesso VN, Shofer FS, Gaieski DF; for the American Heart Association’s Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation Investigators.; Crit Care Med. 2013 Jun;41(6):1385-1395.

Objectives: Formal guidelines recommend that therapeutic hypothermia be considered after in-hospital cardiac arrest. The rate of therapeutic hypothermia use after in-hospital cardiac arrest and details about its implementation are unknown. We aimed to determine the use of therapeutic hypothermia for adult in-hospital cardiac arrest, whether use has increased over time, and to identify factors associated with its use.

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2013 Jun - Multiple Organ Dysfunction After Return of Spontaneous Circulation in Postcardiac Arrest Syndrome

Roberts, Brian W.; Kilgannon, J. Hope; Chansky, Michael E.; Mittal, Neil; Wooden, Jonathan; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Trzeciak, Stephen; Critical Care Medicine. 41(6):1492-1501, June 2013.

Objectives: Recent guidelines for the treatment of postcardiac arrest syndrome recommend optimization of vital organ perfusion after return of spontaneous circulation to reduce the risk of postresuscitation multiple organ injury. However, the prevalence of extracerebral multiple organ dysfunction in postcardiac arrest patients and its association with in-hospital mortality remain unclear.

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2013 Jun - Physical Therapy for the Critically Ill in the ICU: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Kayambu G, Boots R, Paratz J.; Crit Care Med. 2013 Jun;41(6):1543-54.

Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to review the evidence base for exercise in critically ill patients.

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2013 May - The Use of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in the ICU: Where Are We Now?

Greenberg, Steven B.; Vender, Jeffery; Critical Care Medicine. 41(5):1332-1344, May 2013.

Intensivists use neuromuscular blocking agents for a variety of clinical conditions, including for emergency intubation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, status asthmaticus, elevated intracranial pressure, elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and therapeutic hypothermia after ventricular fibrillation–associated cardiac arrest...

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