2015 Dec - Safety and Efficacy of Combined Extracorporeal CO2 Removal and Renal Replacement Therapy in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Acute Kidney Injury: The Pulmonary and Renal Support in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Study

Allardet-Servent J, Castanier M, Signouret T, Soundaravelou R, Lepidi A, Seghboyan JM.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Dec;43(12):2570-81.

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of combining extracorporeal CO2 removal with continuous renal replacement therapy in patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury.

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2015 Nov - Risks and benefits of stress ulcer prophylaxis in adult neurocritical care patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Bolin Liu, Shujuan Liu, Anan Yin, Javed Siddiqi Critical Care 2015, 19:409 (17 November 2015)

Introduction: Neurocritical care patients are at high risk for stress-related upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the risks and benefits of stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) in this patient group.

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2015 Nov - Ten Myths and Misconceptions Regarding Pain Management in the ICU

Sigakis MJ, Bittner EA.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov;43(11):2468-78.

Objectives: The aim of this article is to expose common myths and misconceptions regarding pain assessment and management in critically ill patients that interfere with effective care. We comprehensively review the literature refuting these myths and misconceptions and describe evidence-based strategies for improving pain management in the ICU.

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2015 Nov - Disappointing Success of Electrical Cardioversion for New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Cardiosurgical ICU Patients

Arrigo M, Jaeger N, Seifert B, Spahn DR, Bettex D, Rudiger A.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov;43(11):2354-9.

Objectives: To assess the success of electrical cardioversion for the treatment of new-onset atrial fibrillation in critically ill patients and to evaluate the stability of sinus rhythm in responders during the subsequent 24 hours.

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2015 Nov - Predicting Outcome With Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Cardiac Arrest Patients Receiving Hypothermia Therapy: Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study

Ryoo SM, Jeon SB, Sohn CH, Ahn S, Han C, Lee BK, Lee DH, Kim SH, Donnino MW, Kim WY; Korean Hypothermia Network Investigators. ;Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov;43(11):2370-7.

Objectives: Many comatose patients following cardiac arrest have ischemic brain injury. Diffusion-weighted imaging is a sensitive tool to identify hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The accurate prediction of the prognosis for comatose cardiac arrest survivors has been challenging, and thus, a multimodal approach, combining diffusion-weighted image findings, could be feasible. The aim of this study was to assess regional brain injury on diffusion-weighted imaging and to test the potential association with its neurologic outcome in patients treated with target temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

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2015 Nov - The Impact of Tracheostomy Timing on Clinical Outcome and Adverse Events in Poor-Grade Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Gessler F, Mutlak H, Lamb S, Hartwich M, Adelmann M, Platz J, Konczalla J, Seifert V, Senft C.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov;43(11):2429-38.

Objective: The value of optimal timing of tracheostomy in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage is controversially debated. This study investigates whether early or late tracheostomy is associated with beneficial outcome or reduced rates of adverse events.

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2015 Nov - The Association Between Daytime Intensivist Physician Staffing and Mortality in the Context of Other ICU Organizational Practices: A Multicenter Cohort Study

Costa DK, Wallace DJ, Kahn JM.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov;43(11):2275-82.

Objective: Daytime intensivist physician staffing is associated with improved outcomes in the ICU. However, it is unclear whether this association persists in the era of interprofessional, protocol-directed critical care. We sought to reexamine the association between daytime intensivist physician staffing and ICU mortality and determine if interprofessional rounding and protocols for mechanical ventilation in part mediate this relationship.

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2015 Nov - Rapid Diagnosis of Infection in the Critically Ill, a Multicenter Study of Molecular Detection in Bloodstream Infections, Pneumonia, and Sterile Site Infections

Vincent JL, Brealey D, Libert N, Abidi NE, O'Dwyer M, Zacharowski K, Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz M, Schrenzel J, Simon F, Wilks M, Picard-Maureau M, Chalfin DB, Ecker DJ, Sampath R, Singer M; Rapid Diagnosis of Infections in the Critically Ill Team.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov;43(11):2283-91.

Objective: Early identification of causative microorganism(s) in patients with severe infection is crucial to optimize antimicrobial use and patient survival. However, current culture-based pathogen identification is slow and unreliable such that broad-spectrum antibiotics are often used to insure coverage of all potential organisms, carrying risks of overtreatment, toxicity, and selection of multidrug-resistant bacteria. We compared the results obtained using a novel, culture-independent polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry technology with those obtained by standard microbiological testing and evaluated the potential clinical implications of this technique.

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2015 Nov - Double-Blind Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of Dopamine Versus Epinephrine as First-Line Vasoactive Drugs in Pediatric Septic Shock

Ventura AM, Shieh HH, Bousso A, Góes PF, Fernandes Ide C, de Souza DC, Paulo RL, Chagas F, Gilio AE.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov;43(11):2292-302.

Objectives: The primary outcome was to compare the effects of dopamine or epinephrine in severe sepsis on 28-day mortality; secondary outcomes were the rate of healthcare–associated infection, the need for other vasoactive drugs, and the multiple organ dysfunction score.

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2015 Aug - Double-Blind Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of Dopamine Versus Epinephrine as First-Line Vasoactive Drugs in Pediatric Septic Shock

Ventura AM, Shieh HH, Bousso A, Góes PF, Fernandes IC, de Souza DC, Locatelli RP, Chagas F, Gilio AE.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVES: The primary outcome was to compare the effects of dopamine or epinephrine in severe sepsis on 28-day mortality; secondary outcomes were the rate of healthcare-associated infection, the need for other vasoactive drugs, and the multiple organ dysfunction score.

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2015 Sep - Ventilator-Associated Events: Prevalence, Outcome, and Relationship With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

Bouadma L, Sonneville R, Garrouste-Orgeas M, Darmon M, Souweine B, Voiriot G, Kallel H, Schwebel C, Goldgran-Toledano D, Dumenil AS, Argaud L, Ruckly S, Jamali S, Planquette B, Adrie C, Lucet JC, Azoulay E, Timsit JF; OUTCOMEREA Study Group.: Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep;43(9):1798-806.

Objectives: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention built up new surveillance paradigms for the patients on mechanical ventilation and the ventilator-associated events, comprising ventilator-associated conditions and infection-related ventilator-associated complications. We assess 1) the current epidemiology of ventilator-associated event, 2) the relationship between ventilator-associated event and ventilator-associated pneumonia, and 3) the impact of ventilator-associated event on antimicrobials consumption and mechanical ventilation duration.

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2015 Jul - Ultrasound-Guided Subclavian Vein Catheterization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Lalu MM, Fayad A, Ahmed O, Bryson GL, Fergusson DA, Barron CC, Sullivan P, Thompson C; Canadian Perioperative Anesthesia Clinical Trials Group.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jul;43(7):1498-507.

Objective: Although ultrasound guidance for subclavian vein catheterization has been well described, evidence for its use has not been comprehensively appraised. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether ultrasound guidance of subclavian vein catheterization reduces catheterization failures and adverse events compared to the traditional “blind” landmark method. All forms of ultrasound were included (dynamic 2D ultrasound, static 2D ultrasound, and Doppler).

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2015 Jul - Effects and Clinical Characteristics of Intracranial Pressure Monitoring–Targeted Management for Subsets of Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Multicenter Study

Yuan Q, Wu X, Yu J, Sun Y, Li Z, Du Z, Mao Y, Zhou L, Hu J.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jul;43(7):1405-14.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of traumatic brain injury management guided by intracranial pressure monitoring and to explore the specific subgroups for which intracranial pressure monitoring might be significantly associated with improved outcomes based on a classification of the various traumatic brain injury pathophysiologies using the clinical features and CT scans.

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2015 Jul - Comparative Effectiveness of Noninvasive and Invasive Ventilation in Critically Ill Patients With Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Stefan MS, Nathanson BH, Higgins TL, Steingrub JS, Lagu T, Rothberg MB, Lindenauer PK.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jul;43(7):1386-94.

Objectives: To compare the characteristics and hospital outcomes of patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated in the ICU with initial noninvasive ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation.

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2015 Jul - Hypothermia for Traumatic Brain Injury in Children—A Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial

Beca J, McSharry B, Erickson S, Yung M, Schibler A, Slater A, Wilkins B, Singhal A, Williams G, Sherring C, Butt W; Pediatric Study Group of the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jul;43(7):1458-66.

Objectives: To perform a pilot study to assess the feasibility of performing a phase III trial of therapeutic hypothermia started early and continued for at least 72 hours in children with severe traumatic brain injury.

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2015 Jul - The Very Elderly Admitted to ICU: A Quality Finish?

Heyland D, Cook D, Bagshaw SM, Garland A, Stelfox HT, Mehta S, Dodek P, Kutsogiannis J, Burns K, Muscedere J, Turgeon AF, Fowler R, Jiang X, Day AG; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group and the Canadian Researchers at the End of Life Network.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jul;43(7):1352-60.

Objective: Very elderly persons admitted to ICUs are at high risk of death. To document life-sustaining interventions (mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, renal replacement therapy) provided in the ICU and outcomes of care.

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2015 May - Posttraumatic stress disorder in critical illness survivors: a metaanalysis

Parker AM, Sricharoenchai T, Raparla S, Schneck KW, Bienvenu OJ, Needham DM.; Crit Care Med. 2015 May;43(5):1121-9.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and metaanalysis of the prevalence, risk factors, and prevention/treatment strategies for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in critical illness survivors.

Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from inception through March 5, 2014.

Study Selection: Eligible studies met the following criteria: 1) adult general/nonspecialty ICU, 2) validated posttraumatic stress disorder instrument greater than or equal to 1 month post-ICU, and 3) sample size greater than or equal to 10 patients.

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2015 May - Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for the Support of Adults With Acute Myocarditis

Diddle JW, Almodovar MC, Rajagopal SK, Rycus PT, Thiagarajan RR.; Crit Care Med. 2015 May;43(5):1016-25.

Objectives: To characterize survival outcomes for adult patients with acute myocarditis supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality.

Design: Retrospective review of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry database.

Setting: Data reported to Extracorporeal Life Support Organization by 230 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers.

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2015 May - Neurologic Outcomes and Postresuscitation Care of Patients With Myoclonus Following Cardiac Arrest

Seder DB, Sunde K, Rubertsson S, Mooney M, Stammet P, Riker RR, Kern KB, Unger B, Cronberg T, Dziodzio J, Nielsen N; International Cardiac Arrest Registry.; Crit Care Med. 2015 May;43(5):965-72

Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of cardiac arrest survivors with myoclonus receiving modern postresuscitation care.

Design: Retrospective review of registry data.

Setting: Cardiac arrest receiving centers in Europe and the United States from 2002 to 2012.

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2015 Apr - Active Compression-Decompression Resuscitation and Impedance Threshold Device for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Wang CH, Tsai MS, Chang WT, Huang CH, Ma MH, Chen WJ, Fang CC, Chen SC, Lee CC. Crit Care Med. 2015 Apr;43(4):889-96.

OBJECTIVE: Active compression-decompression resuscitation and impedance threshold device are proposed to improve survival of patients of cardiac arrest by lowering intrathoracic pressure and increasing cardiac output. The results of clinical studies of active compression-decompression resuscitation or impedance threshold device were controversial. This metaanalysis pooled results of randomized controlled trials to examine whether active compression-decompression resuscitation or impedance threshold device would improve outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in comparison with standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation and to explore factors modifying these effects.

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