2015 Mar - Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of acetaminophen for the reduction of oxidative injury in severe sepsis: the acetaminophen for the reduction of oxidative injury in severe sepsis trial

Janz DR, Bastarache JA, Rice TW, Bernard GR, Warren MA, Wickersham N, Sills G, Oates JA, Roberts LJ 2nd, Ware LB; Acetaminophen for the Reduction of Oxidative Injury in Severe Sepsis Study Group.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Mar;43(3):534-41

Objectives: This trial evaluated the efficacy of acetaminophen in reducing oxidative injury, as measured by plasma F2-isoprostanes, in adult patients with severe sepsis and detectable plasma cell-free hemoglobin.

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2015 Mar - Comparison of Video Laryngoscopy Versus Direct Laryngoscopy During Urgent Endotracheal Intubation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Silverberg MJ, Li N, Acquah SO, Kory PD. ;Crit Care Med. 2015 Mar;43(3):636-41.

Objectives: In the critically ill undergoing urgent endotracheal intubation by direct laryngoscopy, multiple attempts are often required with a higher complication rate due to the urgency, uncontrolled setting, comorbidities, and variability in expertise of operators. We hypothesized that Glidescope video laryngoscopy would be superior to direct laryngoscopy during urgent endotracheal intubation.

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2015 Mar - Mechanical Ventilation Management During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Retrospective International Multicenter Study

Schmidt M, Stewart C, Bailey M, Nieszkowska A, Kelly J, Murphy L, Pilcher D, Cooper DJ, Scheinkestel C, Pellegrino V, Forrest P, Combes A, Hodgson C.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Mar;43(3):654-64.

Objective: To describe mechanical ventilation settings in adult patients treated for an acute respiratory distress syndrome with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and assess the potential impact of mechanical ventilation settings on ICU mortality.

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2015 Mar - Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy

Boland TA, Lee VH, Bleck TP. ;Crit Care Med. 2015 Mar;43(3):686-93.

Objectives: Reversible stress-induced cardiac dysfunction is frequently seen as a complication of a multitude of acute stress states, in particular neurologic injuries. This dysfunction may be difficult to distinguish between that caused by myocardial ischemia and may impact both the treatment strategies and prognosis of the underlying condition. Critical care practitioners should have an understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, precipitating conditions, differential diagnosis, and proposed treatments for stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

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2015 Mar - Use of High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy to Prevent Desaturation During Tracheal Intubation of Intensive Care Patients With Mild-to-Moderate Hypoxemia

Miguel-Montanes R, Hajage D, Messika J, Bertrand F, Gaudry S, Rafat C, Labbé V, Dufour N, Jean-Baptiste S, Bedet A, Dreyfuss D, Ricard JD.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Mar;43(3):574-83.

Objectives: Tracheal intubation of ICU patients is frequently associated with severe hypoxemia. Although noninvasive ventilation reduces desaturation during intubation of severely hypoxemic patients, it does not allow for per-procedure oxygenation and has not been evaluated in mild-to-moderate hypoxemic patients for whom high-flow nasal cannula oxygen may be an alternative. We sought to compare pre- and per-procedure oxygenation with either a nonrebreathing bag reservoir facemask or a high-flow nasal cannula oxygen during tracheal intubation of ICU patients.

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2015 Mar - The role of aerosolized colistin in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and metaanalysis

Valachis A, Samonis G, Kofteridis DP. Crit Care Med. 2015 Mar;43(3):527-33.

OBJECTIVES: The present meta-analysis and systematic review evaluated the efficacy and safety of aerosolized colistin as adjunctive therapy to IV antimicrobials or as monotherapy in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

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2015 Mar - The efficacy and safety of heparin in patients with sepsis: a systematic review and metaanalysis

Zarychanski R, Abou-Setta AM, Kanji S, Turgeon AF, Kumar A, Houston DS, Rimmer E, Houston BL, McIntyre L, Fox-Robichaud AE, Hébert P, Cook DJ, Fergusson DA; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Mar;43(3):511-8.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of heparin in patients with sepsis, septic shock, or disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with infection.

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2015 Jan - Pharmacologic agents for the prevention and treatment of delirium in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: systematic review and metaanalysis

Mu JL, Lee A, Joynt GM.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):194-204.

OBJECTIVES: Postcardiac surgery delirium is associated with increased risks of morbidity, cognitive decline, poor health-related quality of life and mortality, and higher healthcare costs. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to examine the effect of pharmacologic agents for the prevention and the treatment of delirium after cardiac surgery.

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2015 Feb - Failure of Anticoagulant Thromboprophylaxis: Risk Factors in Medical-Surgical Critically Ill Patients

Lim W, Meade M, Lauzier F, Zarychanski R, Mehta S, Lamontagne F, Dodek P, McIntyre L, Hall R, Heels-Ansdell D, Fowler R, Pai M, Guyatt G, Crowther MA, Warkentin TE, Devereaux PJ, Walter SD, Muscedere J, Herridge M, Turgeon AF, Geerts W, Finfer S, Jacka M, Berwanger O, Ostermann M, Qushmaq I, Friedrich JO, Cook DJ; PROphylaxis for ThromboEmbolism in Critical Care Trial Investigators; PROphylaxis for ThromboEmbolism in Critical Care Trial Investigators. Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb;43(2):401-10.

Objectives: To identify risk factors for failure of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis in critically ill patients in the ICU.

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2015 Feb - Dysphagia—A Common, Transient Symptom in Critical Illness Polyneuropathy: A Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing Study

Ponfick M, Linden R, Nowak DA. Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb;43(2):365-72

Objectives: Critical illness polyneuropathy is a common disorder in the neurological ICU. Dysphagia is well known to deteriorate outcome in the ICU. The prevalence of dysphagia in critical illness polyneuropathy is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dysphagia in critical illness polyneuropathy using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

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2015 Feb - Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) in Critically Ill Patients in China

Yang Y, Guo F, Zhao W, Gu Q, Huang M, Cao Q, Shi Y, Li J, Chen J, Yan J, Jin Z, Wang X, Deng Y, Sun L, Cai H, Huang J, Zheng Y, Li W, Liu A, Chen B, Zhou M, Qiu H, Slutsky AS. Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb;43(2):339-45.

Objectives: In March 2013, human infection with a novel avian-origin reassortment influenza A (H7N9) virus was identified in China. A total of 26 cases were confirmed and treated in Jiangsu. All the patients had findings consistent with pneumonia and were admitted to an ICU, which pose a threat to human health. We aimed to provide the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of the critically ill patients with H7N9 viral infection.

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2015 Feb - A Clinical Classification of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome for Predicting Outcome and Guiding Medical Therapy

Villar J, Fernández RL, Ambrós A, Parra L, Blanco J, Domínguez-Berrot AM, Gutiérrez JM, Blanch L, Añón JM, Martín C, Prieto F, Collado J, Pérez-Méndez L, Kacmarek RM; Acute Lung Injury: Epidemiology and Natural history (ALIEN) Network; Acute Lung Injury Epidemiology and Natural history ALIEN Network. Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb;43(2):346-53.

Objective: Current in-hospital mortality of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is above 40%. ARDS outcome depends on the lung injury severity within the first 24 hours of ARDS onset. We investigated whether two widely accepted cutoff values of PaO2/FIO2 and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) would identify subsets of patients with ARDS for predicting outcome and guiding therapy.

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2015 Feb - Hemodynamics and Vasopressor Support During Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C Versus 36°C After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Post Hoc Study of the Target Temperature Management Trial

Bro-Jeppesen J, Annborn M, Hassager C, Wise MP, Pelosi P, Nielsen N, Erlinge D, Wanscher M, Friberg H, Kjaergaard J; TTM Investigators. Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb;43(2):318-27.

Objective: To investigate the hemodynamic profile associated with different target temperatures and to assess the prognostic implication of inotropic/vasopressor support and mean arterial pressure after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. There is a lack of information how different target temperatures may affect hemodynamics.

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2015 Feb - Fluid Management With a Simplified Conservative Protocol for the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Grissom CK, Hirshberg EL, Dickerson JB, Brown SM, Lanspa MJ, Liu KD, Schoenfeld D, Tidswell M, Hite RD, Rock P, Miller RR 3rd, Morris AH; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trials Network; National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trials Network. Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb;43(2):288-295.

Objectives: In the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) of the National Institutes of Health Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network, a conservative fluid protocol (FACTT Conservative) resulted in a lower cumulative fluid balance and better outcomes than a liberal fluid protocol (FACTT Liberal). Subsequent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network studies used a simplified conservative fluid protocol (FACTT Lite). The objective of this study was to compare the performance of FACTT Lite, FACTT Conservative, and FACTT Liberal protocols.

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2015 Feb - Comparing Observed and Predicted Mortality Among ICUs Using Different Prognostic Systems: Why Do Performance Assessments Differ?

Kramer AA, Higgins TL, Zimmerman JE. Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb;43(2):261-9.

Objectives: To compare ICU performance using standardized mortality ratios generated by the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa and a National Quality Forum–endorsed methodology and examine potential reasons for model-based standardized mortality ratio differences.

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2015 Jan - Male-Predominant Plasma Transfusion Strategy for Preventing Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury: A Systematic Review

Schmickl CN, Mastrobuoni S, Filippidis FT, Shah S, Radic J, Murad MH, Toy P, Gajic O. ;Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):205-25.

Objectives: To assess 1) the effectiveness of male-predominant plasma transfusion strategy for preventing transfusion-related acute lung injury and related mortality; and 2) whether this effect varies across different patient subgroups.

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2015 Jan - The Role of Simulation in Continuing Medical Education for Acute Care Physicians: A Systematic Review

Khanduja PK, Bould MD, Naik VN, Hladkowicz E, Boet S.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):186-93.

Objectives: We systematically reviewed the effectiveness of simulation-based education, targeting independently practicing qualified physicians in acute care specialties. We also describe how simulation is used for performance assessment in this population.

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2015 Jan - Cardiac Output Monitoring: A Contemporary Assessment and Review

Thiele RH, Bartels K, Gan TJ. ;Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):177-85.

Objective: An increasing number of minimally or noninvasive devices are available to measure cardiac output in the critical care setting. This article reviews the underlying physical principles of these devices in addition to examining both animal and human comparative studies in an effort to allow clinicians to make informed decisions when selecting a device to measure cardiac output.

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2015 Jan - Electroencephalogram Predicts Outcome in Patients With Postanoxic Coma During Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia

Tjepkema-Cloostermans MC, Hofmeijer J, Trof RJ, Blans MJ, Beishuizen A, van Putten MJ.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):159-67.

Objective: To assess the value of electroencephalogram for prediction of outcome of comatose patients after cardiac arrest treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia.

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2015 Jan - Extracorporeal Co2 Removal in Hypercapnic Patients At Risk of Noninvasive Ventilation Failure: A Matched Cohort Study With Historical Control

Del Sorbo L, Pisani L, Filippini C, Fanelli V, Fasano L, Terragni P, Dell'Amore A, Urbino R, Mascia L, Evangelista A, Antro C, D'Amato R, Sucre MJ, Simonetti U, Persico P, Nava S, Ranieri VM.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):120-7

Objectives: To assess efficacy and safety of noninvasive ventilation-plus-extracorporeal Co2 removal in comparison to noninvasive ventilation-only to prevent endotracheal intubation patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure at risk of failing noninvasive ventilation.

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