2015 Jan - Influence of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enriched Lipid Emulsions on Nosocomial Infections and Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients: ICU Lipids Study

Grau-Carmona T, Bonet-Saris A, García-de-Lorenzo A, Sánchez-Alvarez C, Rodríguez-Pozo A, Acosta-Escribano J, Miñambres E, Herrero-Meseguer JI, Mesejo A.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):31-9.

Objective: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (contained in fish oil) have been shown to beneficially influence infection rate and clinical outcomes in surgical patients probably due to their immunomodulatory action. In contrast, study results of fish oil administration in critically ill patients are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the prevalence of nosocomial infections and clinical outcomes in medical and surgical critically ill patients.

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2015 Jan - Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator-associated conditions: a randomized controlled trial with subglottic secretion suctioning

Damas P, Frippiat F, Ancion A, Canivet JL, Lambermont B, Layios N, Massion P, Morimont P, Nys M, Piret S, Lancellotti P, Wiesen P, D'orio V, Samalea N, Ledoux D.; Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):22-30.

OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated pneumonia diagnosis remains a debatable topic. New definitions of ventilator-associated conditions involving worsening oxygenation have been recently proposed to make surveillance of events possibly linked to ventilator-associated pneumonia as objective as possible. The objective of the study was to confirm the effect of subglottic secretion suctioning on ventilator-associated pneumonia prevalence and to assess its concomitant impact on ventilator-associated conditions and antibiotic use.

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2014 Dec - Feeding the Critically Ill Patient

McClave SA, Martindale RG, Rice TW, Heyland DK.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Dec;42(12):2600-10

Objective: Critically ill patients are usually unable to maintain adequate volitional intake to meet their metabolic demands. As such, provision of nutrition is part of the medical care of these patients. This review provides detail and interpretation of current data on specialized nutrition therapy in critically ill patients, with focus on recently published studies.

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2014 Dec- Transfusion Triggers for Guiding RBC Transfusion for Cardiovascular Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Curley GF, Shehata N, Mazer CD, Hare GM, Friedrich JO.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Dec;42(12):2611-24

Objective: Restrictive red cell transfusion is recommended to minimize risk associated with exposure to allogeneic blood. However, perioperative anemia is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes after cardiovascular surgery. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine whether perioperative restrictive transfusion thresholds are associated with inferior clinical outcomes in randomized trials of cardiovascular surgery patients.

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2014 Dec - Vancomycin-Associated Nephrotoxicity in the Critically Ill: A Retrospective Multivariate Regression Analysis

Hanrahan TP, Harlow G, Hutchinson J, Dulhunty JM, Lipman J, Whitehouse T, Roberts JA.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Dec;42(12):2527-36

Objectives: To evaluate the influence of vancomycin dose, serum trough concentration, and dosing strategy on the evolution of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients.

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2014 Dec - Randomized Controlled Trial of Inhaled Nitric Oxide for the Treatment of Microcirculatory Dysfunction in Patients With Sepsis

Trzeciak S, Glaspey LJ, Dellinger RP, Durflinger P, Anderson K, Dezfulian C, Roberts BW, Chansky ME, Parrillo JE, Hollenberg SM.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Dec;42(12):2482-92.

Objectives: Sepsis treatment guidelines recommend macrocirculatory hemodynamic optimization; however, microcirculatory dysfunction is integral to sepsis pathogenesis. We aimed to test the hypothesis that following macrocirculatory optimization, inhaled nitric oxide would improve microcirculation in patients with sepsis and that improved microcirculation would improve lactate clearance and multiple organ dysfunction.

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2014 Nov - The Changing Role of Palliative Care in the ICU

Aslakson RA, Curtis JR, Nelson JE.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov;42(11):2418-28.

Objectives: Palliative care is an interprofessional specialty as well as an approach to care by all clinicians caring for patients with serious and complex illness. Unlike hospice, palliative care is based not on prognosis but on need and is an essential component of comprehensive care for critically ill patients from the time of ICU admission. In this clinically focused article, we review evidence of opportunities to improve palliative care for critically ill adults, summarize strategies for ICU palliative care improvement, and identify resources to support implementation.

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2014 Nov - Bradycardia During Therapeutic Hypothermia Is Associated With Good Neurologic Outcome in Comatose Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Stær-Jensen H, Sunde K, Olasveengen TM, Jacobsen D, Drægni T, Nakstad ER, Eritsland J, Andersen GO.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov;42(11):2401-8.

Objective: Comatose patients resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest receive therapeutic hypothermia. Bradycardia is frequent during therapeutic hypothermia, but its impact on outcome remains unclear. We explore a possible association between bradycardia during therapeutic hypothermia and neurologic outcome in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

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2014 Nov - Short- and Long-Term Outcome in Elderly Patients After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Cohort Study

Grimaldi D, Dumas F, Perier MC, Charpentier J, Varenne O, Zuber B, Vivien B, Pène F, Mira JP, Empana JP, Cariou A.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov;42(11):2350-7

Objective: Determinants of outcome and long-term survival are unknown in elderly patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our aim was to identify factors associated with short- and long-term neurologic outcome in such patients.

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2014 Nov - Low-Dose Corticosteroid Treatment in Septic Shock: A Propensity-Matching Study

Funk D, Doucette S, Pisipati A, Dodek P, Marshall JC, Kumar A; Cooperative Antimicrobial Therapy of Septic Shock Database Research Group.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov;42(11):2333-41.

Objective: Given conflicting data and current guidelines, low-dose corticosteroids are often used in the treatment of septic shock. To evaluate the therapeutic benefit of early low-dose corticosteroid in patients with septic shock.

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2014 Nov - The Burden of Influenza-Associated Critical Illness Hospitalizations

Ortiz JR, Neuzil KM, Shay DK, Rue TC, Neradilek MB, Zhou H, Seymour CW, Hooper LG, Cheng PY, Goss CH, Cooke CR.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov;42(11):2325-32.

Objective: Influenza is the most common vaccine-preventable disease in the United States; however, little is known about the burden of critical illness due to influenza virus infection. Our primary objective was to estimate the proportion of all critical illness hospitalizations that are attributable to seasonal influenza.

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2014 Oct - Tidal Volume and Plateau Pressure Use for Acute Lung Injury From 2000 to Present: A Systematic Literature Review

Jaswal DS, Leung JM, Sun J, Cui X, Li Y, Kern S, Welsh J, Natanson C, Eichacker PQ.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Oct;42(10):2278-89.

Objective: Since publication of the Respiratory Management of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARMA) trial in 2000, use of tidal volume (VT) less than or equal to 6 mL/kg predicted body weight with corresponding plateau airway pressures (PPlat) less than or equal to 30 cm H2O has been advocated for acute lung injury. However, compliance with these recommendations is unknown. We therefore investigated VT (mL/kg predicted body weight) and PPlat (cm H2O) practices reported in studies of acute lung injury since ARMA using a systematic literature review (i.e., not a meta-analysis).

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2014 Oct - Basic Critical Care Echocardiography by Pulmonary Fellows: Learning Trajectory and Prognostic Impact Using a Minimally Resourced Training Model

See KC, Ong V, Ng J, Tan RA, Phua J.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Oct;42(10):2169-77

Objectives: The spread of basic critical care echocardiography may be limited by training resources. Another barrier is the lack of information about the learning trajectory and prognostic impact of individual basic critical care echocardiography domains like acute cor pulmonale determination and left ventricular function estimation. We thus developed a minimally resourced training model and studied the latter outcomes.

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2014 Oct - Horizontal Infection Control Strategy Decreases Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection and Eliminates Bacteremia in a Surgical ICU Without Active Surveillance

Traa MX, Barboza L, Doron S, Snydman DR, Noubary F, Nasraway SA Jr.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Oct;42(10):2151-7.

Objective: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients worldwide. Numerous healthcare bodies in Europe and the United States have championed active surveillance per the “search and destroy” model. However, this strategy is associated with significant economic, logistical, and patient costs without any impact on other hospital-acquired pathogens. We evaluated whether horizontal infection control strategies could decrease the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection in the ICU, without the need for active surveillance.

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2014 Sep - Arterial Blood Pressure and Neurologic Outcome After Resuscitation From Cardiac Arrest

Kilgannon JH, Roberts BW, Jones AE, Mittal N, Cohen E, Mitchell J, Chansky ME, Trzeciak S.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep;42(9):2083-91.

Objectives: Guidelines for post–cardiac arrest care recommend blood pressure optimization as one component of neuroprotection. Although some retrospective clinical studies suggest that postresuscitation hypotension may be harmful, and laboratory studies suggest that a postresuscitation hypertensive surge may be protective, empirical data are few. In this study, we prospectively measured blood pressure over time during the postresuscitation period and tested its association with neurologic outcome.

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2014 Sep - Lactate Clearance Is a Useful Biomarker for the Prediction of All-Cause Mortality in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Zhang Z, Xu X.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep;42(9):2118-25.

Objectives: Lactate clearance has been widely investigated for its prognostic value in critically ill patients. However, the results are conflicting. The present study aimed to explore the diagnostic accuracy of lactate clearance in predicting mortality in critically or acutely ill patients.

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2014 Sep - Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Effects on Macrocirculation and Microcirculation in Cardiogenic Shock Patients Supported by Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

Petroni T, Harrois A, Amour J, Lebreton G, Brechot N, Tanaka S, Luyt CE, Trouillet JL, Chastre J, Leprince P, Duranteau J, Combes A.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep;42(9):2075-82.

Objectives: This study was designed to assess the effects on macrocirculation and microcirculation of adding an intra-aortic balloon pump to peripheral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with severe cardiogenic shock and little/no residual left ventricular ejection.

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2014 Sep - Rapid Response Team Implementation and In-Hospital Mortality

Salvatierra G, Bindler RC, Corbett C, Roll J, Daratha KB.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep;42(9):2001-6.

Objective: To determine the relationship between implementation of rapid response teams and improved mortality rate using a large, uniform dataset from one state in the United States.

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2014 Sep - Relationship Between ICU Bed Availability, ICU Readmission, and Cardiac Arrest in the General Wards

Town JA, Churpek MM, Yuen TC, Huber MT, Kress JP, Edelson DP.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep;42(9):2037-41.

Objective: The decision to admit a patient to the ICU is complex, reflecting patient factors and available resources. Previous work has shown that ICU census does not impact mortality of patients admitted to the ICU. However, the effect of ICU bed availability on patients outside the ICU is unknown. We sought to determine the association between ICU bed availability, ICU readmissions, and ward cardiac arrests.

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2014 Sep - A Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial of IV Iron Supplementation for Anemia of Traumatic Critical Illness

Pieracci FM, Stovall RT, Jaouen B, Rodil M, Cappa A, Burlew CC, Holena DN, Maier R, Berry S, Jurkovich J, Moore EE.; Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep;42(9):2048-57.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of IV iron supplementation of anemic, critically ill trauma patients.

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