Karim Tazarourte, Bruno Riou, Benjamin Tremey, Charles-Marc Samama, Éric Vicaut, Bernard Vigué Critical Care 2014, 18:R81 (24 April 2014)
Introduction: In vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-treated patients with severe hemorrhage, guidelines recommend prompt VKA reversal with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and vitamin K. The aim of this observational cohort study was to evaluate the impact of guideline concordant administration of PCC and vitamin K on 7-day mortality.
Methods: Data from consecutive patients treated with PCC were prospectively collected in 44 emergency departments. Type of hemorrhage, coagulation parameters, type of treatment and 7-day mortality were recorded. Guideline-concordant administration of PCC and vitamin K (GC-PCC-K) were defined by at least 20 IU/kg factor IX equivalent PCC and at least 5 mg of vitamin K performed within a predefined time frame of 8 hours after admission. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the effect of appropriate reversal on 7-day mortality in all patients and in those with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).
Results: Data from 822 VKA-treated patients with severe hemorrhage were collected over 14 months. Bleeding was gastrointestinal (32%), intracranial (32%), muscular (13%), and "other" (23%). In the whole cohort, 7-day mortality was 13% and 33% in patients with ICH. GC-PCC-K was performed in 38% of all patients and 44% of ICH patients. Multivariate analysis showed a two-fold decrease in 7-day mortality in patients with GC-PCC-K (odds ratio (OR) = 2.15 (1.20 to 3.88); P = 0.011); this mortality reduction was also observed when only ICH was considered (OR = 3.23 (1.53 to 6.79); P = 0.002).
Conclusions: Guideline-concordant VKA reversal with PCC and vitamin K within 8 hours after admission was associated with a significant decrease in 7-day mortality.