Liu J, Shen F, Teboul JL, Anguel N, Beurton A, Bezaz N, Richard C, Monnet X.; Crit Care. 2016 Nov 12;20(1):369.

BACKGROUND: Weaning-induced pulmonary oedema (WiPO) is a well-recognised cause of failure of weaning from mechanical ventilation, but its incidence and risk factors have not been reliably described. We wanted to determine the incidence and risk factors in a population of critically ill patients. In addition, we wanted to describe the effects of diuretics when they are administered in this context.

METHODS: We monitored 283 consecutive spontaneous breathing trials (SBT; T-piece trial) performed in 81 patients. In cases with cardiac output monitoring (n = 85, 29 patients), a passive leg raising (PLR) test was performed before SBT. Three experts established the diagnosis of WiPO based on various patient characteristics.

RESULTS: SBT failed in 128 cases (45 % of all SBT). WiPO occurred in 59 % of these failing cases. Compared to patients without WiPO (n = 52), patients with at least one WiPO (n = 29) had a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (38 % vs. 12 %, respectively; p < 0.01), previous "structural" cardiopathy (dilated and/or hypertrophic and/or hypokinetic cardiopathy and/or significant valvular disease, 9 % vs. 25 %, respectively; p < 0.01), obesity (45 % vs. 17 %, respectively; p < 0.01), and low left ventricular ejection fraction (55 % vs. 21 %, respectively; p = 0.01). At logistic regression, COPD (odds ratio (OR) 8.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.0-37.3), previous structural cardiopathy (OR 4.5, 95 % CI 1.4-14.1), and obesity (OR 3.6, 95 % CI 1.2-12.6) were independent risk factors for experiencing at least one episode of WiPO. In 16 cases with WiPO and a negative PLR at baseline, treatment including diuretics was started. In 9 of these cases, the PLR remained negative before the following SBT. A new episode of WiPO occurred in 7 of these instances, while the two other were extubated. In 7 other cases, the PLR became positive before the following SBT. WiPO did not occur anymore in 6 of these 7 patients who were extubated, while the remaining one was not.

CONCLUSIONS: In our population of critically ill patients, WiPO was responsible for 59 % of weaning failures. COPD, previous "structural" cardiopathy, and, to a lesser extent, obesity were the main risk factors. When a treatment including fluid removal had changed preload-independence to preload-dependence, the following SBT was very likely to succeed.

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