Fong WC, Lo WT, Ng YW, Cheung YF, Wong GC, Ho HF, Chan JH, Li PC.; Hong Kong Med J. 2014 Nov 7.

OBJECTIVE. To compare the outcomes of patients with warfarin-associated intracerebral haemorrhage given different treatments to reverse the effect of anticoagulation.

DESIGN. Historical cohort study.

SETTING. A regional hospital in Hong Kong.

PATIENTS. Patients on warfarin who developed intracerebral haemorrhage.

INTERVENTIONS. Prothrombin complex concentrate versus fresh frozen plasma treatment.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The primary outcome measures included the international normalised ratio before and after prothrombin complex concentrate treatment and the neurological deterioration in patients with Glasgow Coma Scale score of more than 8/not intubated/not planned for immediate surgery (target group). Secondary outcome measures were haematoma expansion, 7-day and 30-day mortality rates, and 3-month functional outcome. Safety outcome was the occurrence of a thrombotic event after prothrombin complex concentrate treatment within the index admission.

RESULTS. Among 33 patients with clearly documented time of infusion of prothrombin complex concentrate, and whose international normalised ratio was checked before and after prothrombin complex concentrate treatment, the mean international normalised ratio was reduced from 2.81 to 1.21 within 24 hours. Within the target group of patients, there was a significantly lower rate of neurological deterioration in the prothrombin complex concentrate group (17.4% of 23 patients) versus fresh frozen plasma group (45.5% of 33 patients) [P=0.027]. In terms of the 7-day mortality, 30-day mortality, and 3-month functional outcome, prothrombin complex concentrate-treated group showed a favourable trend although the difference did not reach a statistical significance. No patient developed thrombotic complications after prothrombin complex concentrate treatment.

CONCLUSIONS. Prothrombin complex concentrates can reverse the warfarin effect of prolonged international normalised ratio in a timely manner. It might better improve the outcome of warfarin-associated intracerebral haemorrhage compared with fresh frozen plasma treatment by reduction in neurological deterioration.

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